لغات کلیدی تافل

ترک کردن رها کردن

ababdon / ǝ’bædǝn/

v. give up completely

syn: release; surrender

* When an elderly lady entered the crowded bus, one of the students abandoned his seat to her.

فروکش کردن- کاهش یافتن

abate / ǝ’beɪt/

v. become less, make less

syn: to lessen; to subside

* The water shortage is abating, but it is still a matter of some concern.

کناره گیری کردن- ترک کردن

abdicate / ‘æbdɪ’keɪt/

v. give up

syn: abandon’ cede

* The aging king abdicated his throne and went into retirement.

دزدیدن [آدم]- ربودن

abdicate / æb’dʌkt/

v. carry off by force

syn: kindnap; abduce

* The Greeks attacked Troy to recover Helen, who had been abducted by the Trojan prince Paris.

شریک جرم (کسی) شدن- هم دستی کردن

abet / ǝ’bεt/

v. give help to a crime

syn: to help; to aid

* It is unlawful to aid and abet a criminal.

متنفر بودن از، نفرت داشتن از

abhor / ǝb’hɔr/

v. dislike deeply

syn: to hate; to detest

* Janet is doing her best to pass English because she abhors the thought of having to repeat it in summer school.

نکبت بار، رقت انگیز

abject / ‘æbdʒεkt/

aj. Deserving great pity

syn: miserable; wretched

* They were living in such abject poverty that they could not even afford the bare necessities.

غیر عادی- غیر طبیعی

avnormal / æb’nɔrmǝl/

adj. not ordinary

syn: unusual; aberrant

* we had three absences today, which is abnormal. usually, everyone is present.

منزل- اقامتگاه- سکونت

abode / ǝ’bod/

n. home

syn: dwelling; domicile

* The announcement read: “The Coopers have moved & invite you to visit them at their new abode, 22 Apple street.”

فراوان بودن- فراوان داشتن

abound / ǝ’baund/

v. be well supplied

syn: increase; swarm

* Before Christmas, the stores have abounded supplies of toys.

خارج- خارج از کشور

abroad / ǝ’brɔd/

adv. in another country

syn: overseas; out of the country

* After living abroad for a time, Robert Browning became homesick for his native land.

یک دفعه- به طور ناگهانی

abruptly / ǝ’brʌptli/

adv.unexpected

syn: suddenly; bluntly

* Todau’s art lesson finished abruptly when the gongs sounded for a fire drill.

گریختن- فرارکردن

abscond / æb’skand/

v. go away suddenly

syn: steal off; bolt

* A wide search is under way for the manager who absconded with $ 10.000 of his employer’s funds.

جذاب- جذب کننده

absorbing / ǝb’sɔrbɪŋ/

adj. extrenely interesting

syn: engrossed; amused

* That was an absorbing book. It held my interest from beginning to end.

امتناع کردن- خودداری کردن

abstain / ǝb’steɪn/

v. withhold oneself from doing something

syn: avoid; cease

* My dentist said I would have fewer cavities if I abstained from eating candy.

خویشن داری- امساک- پرهیز

abstinence / ‘æbstǝnǝns/

n. stopping yourselg from having of doing sth that you enjoy

syn: avoifance’ self- denial

* The doctor advised total abstinence from alcohol.

دیوانه- احمق- احمقانه

absurd / ǝb’sǝrd/

adj. that should be laughed at

syn: ridiculous; crazy

* Don’t be absurd! U can’t possibly do all this work in one day.

سوء استفاده کردن از- بدرفتاری کردن با

abuse/ ǝ’byuz/

v. to say rude things to sb.

syn: deceive; injure

* Social workers discovered that the girl had been secually abused by her father.

رضایت دادن- تسلیم شدن- به مقامی دست یافتن

accede / æk’sid/

v. agree to a request, suggestion, etc.

syn: agree; accord

* When I asked my English teacher if I might change my topic, he readily acceded to my request.

راه- ورود- دسترسی- دستیابی

access / ‘æksεs/

n. a way of entering or reaching

syn: path; passage

* Access to the garden is through the kitchen.

در دسترس- قابل دسترسی

accessible / ǝk’sεsǝbǝl/

adj. easy to approach

syn: achievable; available

* Navy blue shoes and gloves are accessible in every store.

[ به صورت جمع] ضمائم- لوازم فرعی

accessory / ǝk’sεsǝri/

n. something added

syn: accompaniment; accomplice

* Navy blue shoes and gloves would be perfect accessories for this white suit.

تحسین کردن- کف زدن- ابراز احساسات کردن

acclaim / ǝ’kleɪm/

v. to praise sb/sth greatly

syn: applaud; clap

* The novel has been acclaimed as a modern classic.

جا دادن- وفق دادن

accommodate / ǝ’kamǝ’deɪt/

v. provide with a place to live in

syn: board; put up

* The new tourist hotel will have accommodations for more than one thousand people.

شریک جرم- همدست

accomplice / ‘ǝkamplɪs/

n. person who helps someone to do wrong.

syn: abettor; partner

* The police are still looking for the thief’s accomplice.

جلوی کسی را گرفتن- سر راه کسی سبز شدن

accost / ǝ’kɔst/

v. go up and speak

syn: approach; onfront

* The stranger accosted her as she was unlocking her door.

همراه- ملازم

accompaniment / ǝ’kʌmpǝnimǝnt/

n. something that neturally or pleasantly goes with sth else

syn: support; sccessory

* He only drinks wine as an accompaniment to a meal.

جمع شدن- انباشته شدن- تعلق گرفتن

accrue / ǝ’kru/

v. came as an increase or advantage

syn: accumulate; collect

* A crowd accrued to see what was going on.

جمع کردن- انباشتن

accumulate / ǝ’kumyǝ’leɪt/

v. save and conceal

syn: amass; hoard

* Silas Marner had a reputation as amiser who accumulated every penny he could get his hands on.

درست- صحیح – بدون اشتباه

accurate /’ækyǝrɪn/

adj. exactly correct

syn: correct; authentic

* Her report is accurate and well written.

توجیه کردن- توضیح دادن

account / ǝ’kaunt/

v. give a reason for sth

syn: explain; elucidate

* How can we account for these changes?

کسب کردن- تحصیل کردن- بدست آوردن

acquire / ǝ’kwaɪǝr/

v. to get or obtain sth

syn: achieve; obtain

* She acquired an American accent while living in New York.

تیز- قوی- عمیق- بحرانی

acute / ǝ’kyut/

adj. showing that you are able to understand things easily

syn: intense; vital

* The report contains some acute observations on the situation.

تلخ- تند- زننده

acrid / ‘ækrrd/

adj. taste or smell bitter

syn: sharp; bitter

* This cigarette has an acrid taste; I guess I have been smoking.

ضرب المثل- مثل

adage / ‘ædɪdʒ/

n. old wise phrase

syn: proverb

* ʻA stitch in time saves nineʼ, is an adage.

سازگار کردن- وفق دادن

adapt / ǝ’dæpt/

v. make suitable for new condition

syn: adjust; suit

* People who work at night have to adapt themselves to sleeping in the daytime.

معتاد- شیفته

addicted / ǝ’dɪktɪd/

adj. Dependent on something, esp. a drug

syn: habituated

* You will not become addicted to smoking if you refuse cigarettes when they are offered.

ماهر- استاد

adept / ǝ’dεpt/

adj. highly skilled

syn: expert; shilled

* When I fell behind in French, the teacher asked one of the more adept students to help me.

چسبیدن- پایبند بودن

adhere / ǝd’hɪr/

v. Stick firmly

syn: hold fast; Cling

* Apply the sticker according to the directions, or it will not adhere.

هوادار- طرفدار- مرید

adherent /ǝd’hɪrεnt /

n. loyal supporter of something

syn: follower; faithful supporter

* You can count on Martha’s support in your campaign for reclection . She is one of your most loyal adherents.

نزدیک همسایه

adjacent /ǝ’dʒeɪsǝnt /

adj. very close

syn: neighboring; bordering

* The island of cuba is adjacent to Florida.

نزدیک هم بودن- همسایه هم بودن

adjoin /ǝ’dʒɔɪn /

v. be next to

syn: abut; attach

* Mexico adjoins the United States.

تعطیل کردن- به وقت دیگر موکول کردن

adjourn /ǝ’dʒǝrn /

v. stop a meeting

syn: suspend; defer

* The judge adjourned the count to the following Monday.

تنظیم- میزان- تعدیل

adjustment /ǝ’dʒʌstmǝnt /

n. change slightly so as to make right

syn: adaptation; remodeling

* There’s something wrong with the brakes on the car, they need a main adjustment.

اداره کردن- اجرا کردن

administer /ǝd’mɪnǝstǝr /

v. to control or manage sth

syn: conduct; direct

* The system is very complicated and difficult to administer.

نوجوان- خام

adolescent /’ædl’εs∂nt /

n,adj. a young person who is no longer a child and not yet an adult

syn: boyish; girlish

* Most of my friends are adolescents and they can’t solve this problem.

تذکر دادن- گوشزد کردن

admonish /ǝd’manɪ∫ /

v. scold gently

syn: warn

* Her boss admonished her against being late for work again.

اتخاذ کردن- اختیار کردن- اقتباس کردن

adopt /ǝ’dapt /

v. to take and use sth

syn: approve; select

* She decided not to adopt her husband’s name when she got married.

پرستیدن- دوست داشتن- عاشق (کسی یا چیزی) بودن

adore/ǝ’dɔr /

v. love and respect deeply

syn: admire; cherish

* Mr. Moore is quite a family man; he adores his wife and children.

زرنگ- زیرک- ماهر- زبر دست

adroit/ǝ’drɔɪt/

adj. quick and shillful

syn: clever; deft

* under the adroit direction of coach Lewis, the team finished the season with twelve wins and no losses.

ظهور- پیدایش- ورود

advent/’ædvεnt/

n. the coming of an important event

syn: arrival; approach

* The weather Bureau gave adequate warning of the advent of the hurricane.

نامطلوب- نامساعد- مخالف

adverse/ǝd’vǝrs/

adj: unfavorable

syn: hostile; contrary

* Bacause of adverse reviews, the producer announced that the play will close with tonight’s performance.

حمایت کردن- دفاع کردن

advocate/’ædvǝkɪt/

v. person who speaks in defense of another person

syn: adopt; endorse

* The general was sure to advocate that we give the enemy no respite from the bombings.

مهربان- با محبت- دوستانه

affable/’æfǝbǝl/

adj. friendly and pleasant

ayn: amiable; kindly

* It was affable of you to offer, but I don’t need any help.

شباهت همانندی- قرابت- علاقه

affinity/ǝ’fɪnǝti/

n. a strong feeling that you like and understand sb/sth, usually because you feel similar to him/ her in some way.

syn: alliance; combination

* He had always had an affinity for wild and lonely places.

ثروتمند- مرفه

affiuent/’æfluǝnt/

adj. wealthy

syn: opulent; rich

* The new wing to hospital was made possible by a gift of $ 500.000 from an affluent contributor.

توهین کردن- بی احترامی کردن

affront/ǝ’frʌnt/

v. be rude to

syn: offend; insult

* I was affronted when I didn’t even get an answer to my letter.

تأیید کردن- اظهار داشتن

affirm/ǝ’fǝrm/

v. declare or state something

syn: aver; assert

* Two eyewitnesses affirmed they had seen the defendant at the scene.

جمع- مجموع

aggregate/’ægrǝgɪt/

n. total

syn: collective; accumulation

* The aggregate strength of the allies was impressive, though individually some were quite weak.

متجاوز- مهاجم

aggressor/ǝ’grεsǝr/

n. person or country that starts a quarrel without cause

syn: assailant; invasive

* In her war with the United States, Japan was the aggressor; her surprise attack on Pearl Harbor started the conflict.

چابک- چالاک- پرتحرک

agile/’ædʒǝl/

adj. able to move quickly

syn: active; acute

* A dancer must do strenuous exercises in order to execute the agile movements of his art.

نگران کردن- مضطرب کردن- تکان دادن

agitate/ ‘ædʒǝ’teɪt/

v. shake

syn: confuse; rouse

* Sandra’s parents were agitated when they learned she had failed two subjects.

درخشان- برافروخته

aglow/ǝ’glou /

adj. bright with color

syn: shining brightly

* There was only one candle aglow on the baby’s first birthday cake.

بیماری- ناخوشی- کسالت

ailment/’eɪlmǝnt /

v. to be ill

syn: disease; disorder

* Mrs. Thompson is a hypochondriac; she has a new ailment every week.

نیمه باز- پیش

ajar/ǝ’dʒar /

dj. slightly open

syn: not completely open

* She left the door ajar so that she could hear the conversation in the other room.

خویشاوند- مربوط

akin/ǝ’kɪn/

adj. like; similar

syn: related; congenial

* Jealousy is often akin to love.

گوش به زنگ- هوشیار

alert/ǝ’lǝrt /

adj. quick to see and ask

syn: watchful; perceptive

* Although he was almost ninety years old, he was still active and alert.

غریبه- ناآشنا

alien/’eliǝn /

n. foreigner

syn: adverse; antagonistic

* The entire Russo family are alien of New Jersey except the grandparents, who were born in Itally.

تسکین دادن- آرام کردن- کاهش دادن

alleviate/ǝ’livi’eɪt /

v. make less

syn: lessen; relieve

* The nurse will give you something to alleviate the pain.

اتحاد- اتفاق- رابطه

alliance/ǝ’laɪǝns /

n. an agreement between people and groups together & support each other

syn: union; compact

* The country has military alliance with France.

اختصاص دادن- تخصیص دادن- در نظر گرفتن برای

allot/ǝ’lat /

v. to give sth to sb as his/ her share

syn: allocate; dispense

* Different tasks were allotted to each member of the class.

جذاب- وسوسه انگیز- اغوا کننده

alluring/ǝ’lurɪŋ /

v. attract or charm

syn: tempting; enticing

* She looked very alluring in her black evening dress.

اشاره- کنایه

allusion/ ǝ’luʒǝn/

n. an act of speaking about sth indirectlu

syn: irony; metonymy

* The play is full of allusion to classical mythology.

گوشه گیر- درونگرا

aloof/ǝ’luf/

adj. distant in feeling; not friendly

syn: reserved; indifferent

* Our neighbors are so aloof and unfriendly that they never speak to anyone.

جمع کردن- روی هم گذاشتن

amass/ǝ’mæs/

v. gather or collect in great amounts

syn: accumulate; hoard

* The young girl was warned that she could buy a car if she continued to amass her money.

غیر حرفه ای (آدم) بی تجربه- تازه کار

amateur/’æmǝt∫ǝr/

n. lacking skill

syn: buff; dilettante

* The performance was staged by a group of amateurs who have been studying dramatics as a hobby.

مبهم- دو پهلو

ambiguous/æm’bɪgyǝs/

adj. having more than one meaning

syn: confused; dubious

* To those who could understand every nuance of the cryptic message, there was nothing ambiguous about it.

بهبود بخشیدن

ameliorate/ǝ’miluǝ’reɪt/

v. improve

syn: recover; develop

* Gradually their friendship ameliorated into love.

وسایل آسایش- امکانات رفاهی- تسهیلات

amenity/ǝ’mεbǝti/

n. something in a place that helps to make living there pleasant or easy

syn: advantage; facility

* Among the town’s amenities are two cinemas and a sports centre.

خوش خلق- مهربان- رئوف

amiable/’eɪmiǝbǝl/

adj. good tempered

syn: affable; agreeable

* Charlotte is an amiable child; everybody likes her.

دوستانه- مسالمت آمیز- محبت آمیز

amicable/’æmɪkǝbǝl/

adj. done in a friendly way

syn: good – natured; delightful

* let us try to settle our differences in an amicable manner.

نادرست- اشتباه- غلط

amiss/ǝ’mɪs/

adj. wrong; not as it should be

syn: awry; erroneous

* When I walked into the room I could sense that something was amiss.

فراموشی- نسیان

amnesia/æm’niʒǝ/

n. loss of memory

syn: a lapse of memory

* He suffered from temporary amnesia as the result of a head injury.

فراوان- زیاد- کافی

ample/’æmpǝIɪ/

adj. enough; plenty

syn: abundant; plenty

* Richard’s scholarship includes a very ample living allowance.

بزرگ شدن- تقویت کردن

amplify/’æmplǝ’faɪ/

v. explain in more detail

syn: enlarge; magnify

* The bacteria shown in your text book have been greatly amplified; their actual size is considerably smaller.

تجزیه و تحلیل- بررسی آنالیز

analysis/ǝ’nælǝsɪs/

n. examination of something

syn: break down; division

* Would you rather listen to a single work of this composer or to an analysis of several of his work?

عذاب زجر

anguish/’æŋhwɪ∫/

n. great suffering

syn: distress; pangs

* The injured soldier moaned in anguish until the doctor arrived.

شور و حال بخشیدن- فعال کردن

animate/’ænǝmɪt/

v. give life

syn: activate; arouse

* If you feel enervated by the heat, try a swim in the cool ocean.

سالنامه- تاریخچه

annals/’ænlz/

n. history or record of events

syn: chronicle

* One of the earliest accounts of king Arthur occurs in a 12th century annals of the kings of Britain by Goelfrey of Monmouth.

سالانه- هر ساله- سالنامه

annual/’ænyuǝl/

adj. happening once every year

syn: almanac

* Some grasses last only a year. Others are annual.

لغو کردن- فسخ کردن- باطل کردن

annul/ǝ’nʌl/

v. to stop existing

syn: abolish; abrogate

* The wealthy uncle decided to annul his inane nephew’s sinecure.

غیر عادی- غیر معمول

anomalous/ǝ’namǝlis/

adj. something different from the usual type

syn: abnormal; atypical

* It is an anomalous situation; he is the director of the personal office, but he doesn’t have the authority to hire and dismiss staff.

دشمن- حریف

antagonist/æn’tægǝ’nɪst/

n. opponent; hatred

syn: adversary; foe

* Great Britain was our antagonist in the war of 1812.

مقدم بودن بر- جلوتر بودن از- جلو انداختن

antedate/’æntɪdeɪt/

v. assign a date before the true date

syn: precede

* If you used yesterday’s date on a check written today, you have antedated the check.

حدس زدن- پیش بینی کردن- منتظر بودن

anticipate/æn’tɪsǝ’peɪt/

v. guess (what will happen)

syn: forestall; foresee; forecast

* Now I see how foolish I was to anticipate the outcome of the test. I Passed easily.

تنفر- انزجار- تضاد

antipathy/æn’tıpǝθı/

n. a strong feeling of dislike

syn: aversion; hatred

عتیقه- باستانی

antique/æn’tik/

adj. olf & therefore valuable

syn: aged; ancient

* These lamps, made in England during the fourteenth century, are valuable antiques.

نگرانی- دلواپسی

anxiety/æŋ’zaɪǝti/

n. fear & worry

syn: apprehension; Concern

* My brother’s anxiety over getting into college ended when he received word that had been accepted.

بی تفاوتی- بی اعتنایی- بی علاقگی

apathy/’æpǝθi/

n. a lack of interest in things or of a desire to di anything

syn: coldness; impassivity

He treated our suggestion with complete apathy.

کف زدن- تشویق کردن- تحسین کردن

applaud/ǝ’plɔd/

v. praise by striking one’s hands together.

syn: acclaim; approve

* The audience applauded at the end of the concert.

ارزیابی کردن- ارزشیابی کردن- قیمت گذاشتن (روی)

appraise/ǝ’preɪz/

v. Judge the value of something or someone

syn: evaluate; judge

* Their new house appraised fifty thousand dollars.

مناسب متناسب

appropriate/ǝ’proupri’eɪt/

adj. correct; suitable

syn: applicable

* An arrangement of flowers is always an appropriate gift for someone in the hospital.

استعداد- توانایی- قابلیت

aptitude/’æptǝ’tud/

n. natural ability

syn: capability; tendency

* she has an aptitude for learning languages.

پرشور- وفادار- شیفته

ardent/’ardǝnt/

adj. showing strong feelings, especially a strong liking for sb/ sth

syn: eager; devoted

* He was an ardent supporter of the government.

سخت- دشوار- شاق- طاقت فرسا- صعب العبور

arduous/’ardʒuǝs/

adj. needing effort

syn: difficult; tough

* shoveling deep snow is far too arduous a task for a man of his age.

برانگیختن- ایجاد کردن

arouse/ǝ’rauz/

v. cause to wake

syn: agitate; awaken

* His refusal to walk through the metal detector before boarding the plane aroused the guard’s suspicion.

دستگیر کردن- بازداشت کردن

arrest/ǝ’rεst/

v. seize by the the power of the law

syn: capture; detain

* When a theif entered the crowded street, one of the police arrested him.

متکبر پُرافاده

arrogant/’ærǝgǝnt/

adj. proud in a rude way

syn: conceited; disdainful

The arrogant officials resented that the company president dismissed their demands.

آرزو کردن- خواستن- طلبیدن

aspire/ǝ’spaɪǝr/

v. direct one’s hopes & efforts

syn: crave; aim

* Three candidates aspired to win the election.

اظهار داشتن- بیان کردن- پافشاری کردن

assert/ǝ’sǝrt/

v. declare forcefully

syn: advance; affirm

* Don’t argue with the umpire. If he says you are out, it’s no use asserting you are safe.

دارایی نعمت- موهبت- امتیاز

asset/’æsεt/

n. property that has value

syn: advantage; aid

* His insurance company estimates his assets at over three million dollars.

فرو نشاندن- آرام کردن- تسکین دادن

assuage/ǝ’sweɪdʒ/

v. reduce

syn: to ease; to lessen

* Nothing could assuage his anger.

شگفت زده کردن- مبهوت کردن- گیج کردن

astound/ǝ’staund/

v. shock with surprise

syn: amaze; baffle

* The results of his test astounded him because he had not expected to pass.

بیراهه- منحرف

astray/ǝ’streɪ/

adj. off the right path

syn: amiss; a drift

* Their neighbor asked them to keep their dog tied so that it would not go astray.

ناقلا- زرنگ- موقع شناس

astute/ǝ’stut/

adj. able to see quickly something that is to one’s advantage

syn: shrewd; wise

* The only one to solve the riddle before the five minutes were up was Joel; he is very astute thinker.

جذب کردن- به سوی خود کشیدن- مجذوب کردن

attract/ǝ’trækt/

v. to cause sb/ sth to go to or give attention to sth

syn: charm; allure

* The new film has attracted a lot of publicity.

نسبت دادن به نتیجه (چیزی) دانستن

attribute /ǝ’trɪbju:t/

v. to believe that sth was caused or done by sb/ sth

syn: apply; charge

* Terry attributes his success to hard work.

جسور- بی باک

audacious/ɔ’deɪ∫ǝs/

adj. daring

syn: adventurous; bold

* Risking serious injury, the outfielder made an audacious leap against the concrete wall & caught the powerfully hit ball.

قابل شنیدن

audible/’ɔdǝbǝl/

adj. able to be heard

syn: appreciable; detectable

* The only part of your answer I couldn’t hear was the first word; the rest was audible.

بهبود بخشیدن- زیاد شدن

augment/ɔg’mεnt/

v. increase

syn: enhance; enlarge

* The water shortage is augmenting, but it is still a matter of jome concern.

پیشگویی کردن- از غیب خبر دادن

augur/’ɔgǝr/

v. to be a good/ bad sign of what will happen in the future.

syn: forebode; bode

* The opinion polls augur well for the government.

اصیل- درست- معتبر

authentic/ɔ’θεntɪk/

adj. known to be teal

syn: accurate; actual

* When you withdraw money, the bank compares your signature with the one in its files to see if it it authentic.

خودمختار- خودگردان- مستقل- آزاد

autonomous/ɔ’tanǝmǝs/

adj. governing itself

syn: independent; self-governing

* The Alumni Association is not under the control of the school. It is a completely autonomous group.

حرص- طمع- مال پرستی

avarice/’ævǝrɪs/

n. greed for wealth

syn: covetousness; acquisitiveness

* people who suffer from avarice spend much less & save much more than they should.

بیزاری- تنفر

aversion/ɔ’vǝrʒǝn/

n. strong dislike

syn: detestation; animosity

* He must have an aversion to work because he is always out of a job.

جلوگیری کردن- برگرداندن

avert/ǝ’vǝrt/

v. prevent from happening

syn: avoid; ward off

* The mayor promised to do everything in his power to avert a strike by newspaper employees.

مشتاق تشنه

avid/’ævɪd/

adj. keen and eager

syn: greedy; fervent

* The people crowded round the radio, avid for news.

کار فرعی- مشغولیت- سرگرمی

avocation/ævǝ’kaɪ∫ǝn/

n. occupation away from one’s customary occupation

syn: hobby

* My uncle, an accountant, composes music as an avocation.

با خبر- آگاه- مطلع

aware/ǝ’wεr/

adj. knowing about or realizing sth

syn: heedful; attentive

* I am aware that you will face difficulties.

ناجور- نامناسب- نامساعد

awkward/’ɔkwǝrd/

adj. not convenient, difficult

syn: delicate; inept

* My mother always phones at an awkward time.

گیج کردن- متحیر ساختن- مات و مبهوت کردن

baffle/’bæfǝl/

v. be too difficult for someone

syn: amaze; astound

* Linda was baffled by the confusing road signs; she didn’t know whether to turn left or go straight.

تاس- کچل- بی مو

bald/bɔld/

adj. with no hair on the head

syn: bald-headed; hairless

* The bald eagle is so named for the white feathers on top of its head which give it the appearance of being without hair.

ممنوع کردن- قدغن کردن- تحریم کردن

ban /bæn/

v. forbid

syn: banish bar

* Our library’s regulations bans the borrowing of more than four books at a time.

سد مانع- سنگر

barricade /’bærǝ’keɪd/

n. something quickly built to block a street.

syn: barrier; blockade

* The highway patrol put a barricade in front of the accident.

زیور آلات بدلی- زرق و برق

bauble /’bɔbǝl/

n. cheap jewel

syn: bagatelle; tinsel

* I lost one of my best baubles yesterday, It was antique.

اشاره کردن- چشمک زدن

beckon/’bεkǝn/

v. call with a movement of the finger

syn: allure; attract

* She beckoned them to enter her office.

رفتار- سلوک- عمل

behavior /bɪ’heɪvyǝr/

n. way of behaving

syn: action; conduct

* He was on his best behavior because he wanted to impress his girlfriend’s family.

گول زدن- فریفتن

Beguile/bɪ’gaɪl/

v. charm

syn: cheat; deceive

* Her story didn’t beguile me, I knew it was a lie.

(خود را) کوچک کردن- سبک کردن

belittle/bɪ’lɪtl/

v. cause to seem unimportant

syn: decry; deprecate

* The building superintendent feels belittled if you refer to him as the “janitor”.

نعره زدن- فریاد کشیدن- با داد و فریاد گفتن

bellow/’bεlou/

v. shout in a deep voice

syn: clamour; howl

* Sergeant Black bellowed orders to his troops.

ستیزه جو- پرخاشگر- جنگ طلب

Belligerent/bǝ’lɪdʒǝrǝnt/

n. person who is ready to fight

syn: aggressive; combative

* Bert still likes to settle his arguments with his fists. When will he learn that it’s childish to be so belligerent?

وارث- سود برنده

Beneficiary/’bεnǝ’fɪ∫i’εri/

n. receiver of a benefit

syn: assignee; heir

* The sick & the needy will be the beneficiaries of your gift to the community fund.

استعداد- ذوق

Bent/bεnt/

n. special natural skill

syn: angled; arched

* Eric is clumsy with tools; he has little mechanical bent.

حمله کردن- به ستوه آوردن

Beser/bɪ’sεt/

v. attack continuously

syn: pester; embarrass

* The minister beseted the press for misleading the public.

نوشیدنی- نوشابه

Beverage/’bεvǝrɪdʒ/

n. liquid for drinking

syn: drink; liquid

* In some states it is illegal to sell alcoholic beverages on Sunday.

گیج کردن- سر درگم کردن

Bewilder/ bɪ’wɪldǝr /

v. confuse

syn: baffle; bamboozled

* I need help with the fourth problem; it bewilders me.

یکی به دو کردن- دعوا مرافعه کردن

Bicker/’bɪkǝr/

v. quarrel about small matters

syn: argue; clash

* When I left, two neighbors were quarreling noisily. When I returned an hour later, they were bickering.

نصف کردن- دو نیم کردن- دو قسمت کردن

Bisect/’baɪsεkt/

v. divide into two

syn: split; intersect

* The fields were bisected by hedges and streams.

تلخ- زننده

bitter/’bɪtǝr /

adj. not sweet

syn: scid; harsh

* your coffee is bitter because you forgot to put sugar in it.

مقصر دانستن- سرزنش کردن- ایراد گرفتن

blame/bleɪm /

v. consider responsible for something bad

syn: censure; complaint

* No0 fault insurance does not require anyone to accept the blame for an auto accident in order to be reimbursed by the company.

چرب زبانی- زبان بازی- چاپلوسی

blandishment/’blændɪ∫mǝnts /

n. persuasion by flattery

syn: coax; beguile

* Despite his sister’s blandishments, he refused to lie to their parents.

یأس آور- تیره و تار لخت

bleak/blik /

adj. cold & cheerless

syn: bare; barren

* In winter, when the trees are bare and snow covers the ground, the landscape is very bleak.

مخلوط کردن- قاطی کردن- مخلوط شدن

blend/blεnd /

v. mix together

syn: coalesce; combine

* This tea is a blend of lemon and herbs.

سرسر سطحی- بی خیال- آسوده خاطر

blithe/blaɪθ /

adj. free from care

syn: animated; carefree

* Connie’s father calls her blithe spirit because she is very lighthearted and carefree.

بوران- کولاک

blizzard/’blɪzǝrd /

n. severe snowstorm

syn: snow-squall; tempest

* Since visibility is near zero, all planes will be grounded until the blizzard is over.

اشتباه فاحش

blunder/’blʌndǝr /

n. stupid mistake

syn: bloomer; clanger

* Have you ever committed the blunder of mailing a letter without a postage stamp?

سرخ شدن- خجالت کشیدن

blush/blʌ∫ /

v. become red in the face

syn: colour; flush

* She always blushes when she is embarrassed.

ترقی کردن- رونق داشتن

boom/bum /

v. a period in which sth increases or develops very quickly

syn: increase; develop

* Business is booming in the Japanese car industry.

لطف- احسان- نعمت

boon/bun /

n. comfort; help

syn: advantage; benefaction

* The selection of president Kennedy was a national boon.

بالا و پایین پریدن- برگشت خوردن

bounce/’bauns /

v. to move away quickly after it has hit a hard surface

syn: jump; leap

* In tennis, the ball can only bounce once before you hit it back.

مرز- حد

boundary/’baundǝri /

n. outer limit; border

syn: barrier; border

* The boundaries of the continental United States are Canada on the north, Mexico on the south, the Atlantic ocean on the east and Pacific ocean on the west.

بی حد و حصر- نامحدوده

boundless/’baundlɪs /

adj. unlimited

syn: countless; endless

* Mary Anne has boundless energy; she works full time as a secretary, goes to school at night, and serves as a hospital volunteer on weekends.

تحریم کردن- بایکوت کردن

boycott/’bɔɪkat /

v. to refuse to buy things from a particular company

syn: ban; refuse

* Several countries boycotted the Olympic Games in protest.

تکان دادن- تاب دادن- در دست چرخاندن

brandish/’brændɪ∫ /

v. wave about

syn: display; exhibit

* When he brandished a knife, the clerk agreed to give him the money in the cash drawer.

دعوا و مرافعه کتک و کتک کاری- دست به یقه شدن

brawl/brɔl /

n. nosiy quarrel

syn: affray; argument

* The brawl got louder and louder until the police arrived.

نقض کردن- زیر پا گذاشتن

breach /brit∫/

n. act of bteaking a low

syn: contravention; disruption

* Parking at the bus stop is illegal. Motorists committing this breach are heavily fined.

رشوه دادن- تطمیع کردن

bribe/braɪb /

v. inflyence unfairly by gifts

syn: allurement; incentive

* Hopomg to avoid a ticket, he offered the patrolman a bribe.

کوتاه- مختصر

brief/brif /

n. short statement of facts or instructions

syn: summary

* When he was appointed he was given the brief of improving the image of the organization.

لب- لبه

brim/brɪm/

n. edge of a cup

syn: border; brink

* Please do no dill my cup up to the brim because I always put a lot of cream in my coffee.

لب- لبه مرز

brink/brɪŋk/

n. edge; margin

syn: bank; boundary

* The tourists walked over to the brink of the cliff to take a picture.

شکننده- ترد

brittle/’brɪtl/

adj. hard but easily broken

syn: breakable; crisp

* My fingernails are so brittle that they break off before they get long enough to polish.

وحشی- بی رحم

brutal/’brutl/

adj. without tender feeling

syn: callous; coarse

* The murder was so brutal that the jury was not allowed to see the police photographs.

قلدر- گردن کلفت- زورگو

bully/’buli/

n. person who hurts weaker people

syn: bouncer; browheater

* Eddie liked to be bully with the younger boys, but he never tries to fight with anyone in his own age.

برخورد کردن با- قلنبه شدن

bump/bʌmp/

v. knock violently.

syn: bang; budge

* When the little boy fell down, he skinned his knees and got a bump on his head.

حصار- دژ

bulwark/’bulwǝk/

n. wall built for defense

syn: citadel; fortress

* Some feel that the United States should be a bulwark to the inchoate democracies around the world.

گروه توطئه [سیاست]

cabal/’keɪbǝl/

n. a group of people united in a scheme to promote their views by intrigne.

* All members of the cabal will be prosecuted for treason.

مخفی گاه [اسلحه و غیره] انبار موقت

cache/kæ∫/

n. secret store of things

* Through a fortuitous remark. The cache of the art thieves was discovered.

با زبان بازی (کسی را) راضی کردن

cajole/kǝ’dʒoul/

v. persuade by praise or false promises

syn: beguile; coax

* The child wasn’t hungry, but his mother cajoled him into eating a little.

حساب کردن- تخمین زدن

calculate/’kælkyǝ’leɪt/

v. find out by using using numbers

syn: aim; compute

* I’ve been calculating the costs involved & it’s too expensive.

سنگدل- بی رحم- بی عاطفه

callous/’kælǝs/

adj. unkind

syn: cold; hardened

* Even the most callous observer would be moved by the news

اسیر- زندانی- محبوس

captive/’kæptɪv/

n. prisoner, esp: taken in war

syn: hostage; detainee

* Several captives are being held pending payment of a 50 thousand dollar ransom.

ایراد گرفتن- نق زدن

carping/karpɪŋ/

adj. complain unnecessarily

syn: biting; nagging

* Stop carping! I’ll do it as soon as I can.

ادامه دادن

Carry on/’kærian/

v. continue

syn: administer; endure

* How long did the party carry on after I lefr?

تراشیدن- کندن- بریدن

carve/karv/

adj. to slice meat

syn: ship; chisel

* The statue had been carved out of marble.

انداختن- بیرون کردن- حساب کردن

cast/kæst/

v. to throw out of town

syn: diffuse; fling

* Early every morning the fishermen cast their nets into the sea.

تنبیه کردن- سرزنش کردن- ادب کردن

castigate/’kæstǝ’geɪt/

v. punish severely

syn: chastise; penalise

* Shirley was castigated by her mother for staying out too late.

بلا- فاجعه- مصیبت

cataclysm/’kætǝklɪzǝm/

n. violent event; a great flood

syn: calamity; blow

* One of the most terrible cataclysms in the history of the United States was the Johnstown Flood in Pennsylvania in 1889.

فاجعه آمیز- اسف بار

catastrophic/’kætǝ’strafɪk/

adj. sudden terrible misfortune.

syn: adversity; affliction

* The war had a catastrophic effect on the whole country.

واگذار کردن

cede/sid/

v. give esp: land, after losing a war

syn: abandon; abdicate

* They refused to cede their rights to the land and declared war.

جشن گرفتن- ستایش کردن

celebrate/’sεlǝ’breɪt/

v. mark an event by enjoying oneself

syn: bless; commemorate

* Americans celebrate the Fourth of July with a bang.

عیب جو- خرده گیر- عیب جویانه

censorious/sεn’sɔruǝs/

adj. always looking for mistakes and faults

syn: caviling; condemnatory

* The bombing of the airport brought censorious discussion from all around the world.

صدمین صد ساله- جشن صدمین سالگرد

centennial/sεn’tεniǝl/

n. 100th ex: anniversary

۱۹۸۲ was the centennial of Charles Darwin’s death,

قطع- توقف- وقفه

Cessation/sε’seɪ∫ǝn/

n. short pause or stop

syn: halt; stoppage

* Work came to a cessation when the machine broke down.

تأسف- تأثر

chagrin/∫ǝ’grɪn/

n. annoyance and disappointment

syn: poverty

* She was overcome by chagrin at the check out counter when she discovered she had left her wallet at home.

اغتشاش- هرج و مرج- آشوب

chaos/’keɪas/

n. complete confusion

syn: anarchy; bedlam

* The accident has caused chaos on the M25 motorway.

شیّاد- شارلاتان

charlatan/’∫arlǝtǝn/

n. person who falsely claims a special skill.

syn: cheat; fraud

* Millions of pounds are lost every year in credit card charlatan.

شکاف

chasm/’kæzǝm/

n. very deep crack in the earth

syn: breach; canyon

* She was dismissed from the company for chasm of contract.

پاکدامن- پرهیزگار

chaste/t∫eɪst/

adj. avoiding wrong sexual activity

syn: austere; innocent

* Her parents had taught her that she should behave like a chaste & modest young lady.

ارزان- مفت

cheap/t∫ip/

adj. low in price

syn: bargain; budget

* It’s cheaper to buy a return ticket than two singles.

سرد- نامهربان

chilly/t∫ɪli/

adj. cool

syn: blowy; breezy

* It’d a chilly morning. You need a cost on.

جوانمرد- بلند همت

chivalrous/’∫ɪvǝlrɪǝs/

adj. good manners shown by a man towards woman.

syn: bold; brave

* A chivalrous gentleman helped the frightened woman into the life boat.

وظیفه- کار روزمره مسوولیت

Chore/t∫ɔr/

n. piece of regular or dull work

syn: burden; duty

* It’s your chore to look after the children because I want to go at work.

ترتیب زمانی- رویدادشماری- تاریخ شناسی

chronology/krǝ’nalǝdʒi/

n. science that gives dates to events

syn: historical; progressive

* Christ has a degree in chronology.

دوست رفیق

chum/t∫ʌm

n. friend

syn: companion; comrade

* Jim is eager to see his old school chums at the class reunion.

غلبه کردن بر- از سر راه خود برداشتن- چیزی را دور زدن

circumvent/’sǝrkǝm’vεnt/

v. avoid by cleverness.

syn: conquer

* To circumvent local sales taxes, shoppers often buy in neighboring communities that do not have such taxes.

از جنس مرکبات- [مربوط به] مرکبات

citrus/’sɪtrǝs/

adj. orange family

syn: lemon

* When you catch a cold you should drink citrus fruit.

کف زدن- دست زدن (برای)

clap/klæp/

v. strike one’s hands together

syn: acclaim; applaud

* The crowd clapped &cheered as the football team ran onto the field.

روشن کردن- توضیح دادن- شرح دادن

clarify/’klærǝ’faɪ/

v. make more easily understood

syn: define; explain

* I hope that what I say will clarify the situation.

طبقه بندی کردن- رده بندی کردن- به حساب آوردن

classify/’klærǝ’faɪ/

v. arrange into classes

syn: assort; catalogue

* The books in a library are usually classified according to the subject.

عفو- اعتدال

clemency/’k;εmǝnsi/

n. mercy

syn: Kindness

* Judge Mccarthy often exercises clemency with first offenders.

کلیشه- تکرار مکرّرات

cliche/kli’∫eɪ/

n. expression or idea used so often it has lost much of its force

syn: banality; bromide

* The speaker’s lecture was full of clichés, which annoyed his audience greatly.

مشتریان ارباب رجوع

Clientele /’klaɪǝn’tεl/

n. clients; customers

syn: consumer; customer

* Maria’s boutique appealed to a very wealthy clientele.

به هم ریختن- به هم زدن- شلوغ کردن

clutter/’klʌtǝr/

v. make untidy

syn: Confusion; disarray

* The secretary’s desk was cluttered up with papers & reference materials.

در هم ادغام شدن- یکی شدن- یکپارچه شدن

coalesce/’kouǝ’lεs/

v. grow together; unite

syn: join; link

* The tribes coalesced to withstand the forces that were destroying their livelihood.

به زور وادار کردن- مجبور کردن- تحت فشار قرار دادن

coerce/kɔrs/

v. force to do something

syn: bludgeon; bully

* The hijackers tried to coerce the crew into cooperating with them.

قانع کننده- محکم- مستدل

cogent/’koudʒǝnt/

adj. forceful; convincing

syn: vigorous; compelling

* His ideas were so cogent that no one offered an argument against them.

سکه- پول خرد

coin/kɔɪn/

n. piece of metal money

syn: bit; money

* Every country has a special coin & you can’t buy anything with French coin in Canada, you should change your coin.

همکاری کردن- (با دشمن) همدست بودن

collaborate/kǝlæbǝ’reɪt/

v. work together

syn: collude; conspire

* She collaborated with another author author on the book.

مرتب کردن- منظم کردن

collate/kǝ’leɪt/

v. compare (copies of books, etc.)

syn: arrange; compose

* I sat down and collated a letter of reply.

محاورهای گفتاری

colloquial/kǝ’loukwiǝl/

adj. suitable for informal conversation

syn: controversial; familiar

* We have a colloquial TV program tonight.

عظیم- بزرگ- غول آسا

colossal/kǝ’lasǝl/

adj. extremely large

syn: enormous; gigantic

* The Titanic struck a colossal iceberg.

نبرد- جنگ- دعوا- رزم- نزاع- درگیری

combat/’kambæt/

n. struggle; fight

syn: action; battle

* He got a medal for bravery in combat.

راحت- آسوده- آرام

comfortable/’kʌmftǝbǝl/

adj. giving comfort

syn: adequate; agree

* Our hotel room was large & comfortable

شروع کردن- آغاز کردن

commence/kǝ’mεns/

v. begin; start

syn: embark on; initiate

* Graduation will commence at ten o’clock.

تعریف کردن- تحسین کردن- ستودن

commend/ke’mεnd/

v. praise; put into semeone’s care

syn: acclaim; applaud

* Dean was commended for his excellent work.

[میان خانه و محل کار] مسافر هر روزه

commuter/kǝ’myutǝr/

v. travel regularly between home and work

syn: daily journey

* The average commuter would welcome a chance to live in the vicinity of his or her work.

مقایسه کردن- تشبیه کردن- قابل قیاس بودن

compare/kǝm’pεr/

v. judge against another thing

syn: balance; contrast

* If you compare the old & new models, you’ll see the changes we’ve made.

رحم- ترحم- دلسوزی

compassion/kǝm’pæ∫ǝn/

n. sympathy

syn: pity; sorrow

* She felt compassion for the people who were living in the disaster area.

سازگار- هماهنگ- جور

compatible/kǝm’pætǝbǝl/

adj. able to exist or work together

syn: adaptable; agreeable

* As a couple, they are simply not compatible.

رقابت کردن- مسابقه دادن- در تعارض بودن

compete/kǝm’pit/

v. try to win in a competition

syn: battle; challenge

* When the amateur became a pro he had to compete against better man.

شکل- صورت ظاهر

complexion/kǝm’plεk∫ǝn/

n. natural appearance

syn: aspect; composition

* This news puts a completely different complexion on our situation.

تعریف- تحسین

compliment/’kamplǝmǝnt/

n. an expression of praise

syn: accolade; admiration

* people have often paid her compliments on her piano playing

اشکال- دشواری- پیچیدگی

complexity/kǝm’plεksǝti/

n. made of many connected

syn: diversity; complication

* I don’t have time to explain the complexities of the chemical process now.

مطیع- فرمانبردار

compliant/kǝm’pleɪnt/

n. agree to do something; obey

syn: consent; concurrence

* You should be a compliant if you want to work here.

تشکیل دهنده- قطعه- جزء

component/kǝm’pounǝnt/

n. any part of a whole machine or system

syn: bit; element

* If you want to be a good driver, first of all you should know car components very well.

درک کردن- دریافتن

comprehend/’kamprɪhεnd/

v. understand; include

syn: apprehend; comprise

* She’s too young to comprehend what has happened.

اجباری ناخواسته

compulsory/kǝm’pʌlsǝri/

adj. that must be done by law

syn: binding; imperative

* Maths and English are compulsory subjects on this course.

پوشاندن- پنهان کردن- مخفی کردن

conceal/kǝn’sil/

v. hide

syn: bury; obscure

* He tried to conceal his identity by disguising his voice.

موجز- مختصر- فشرده

concise/kǝn’saɪs/

adj. expressing a lot in a few works

syn: abbreviated; summary

* He gave a clear & concise summary of what had happened.

پایان دادن ختم کردن- تصمیم گرفتن

Conclude/kǝn’klud/

v. end or to bring sth to an end

syn: assume; deduce

* The prince concluded his tour with a visit to a charity concert.

به طور قاطع- با قاطعیت

conclusively/kǝn’klusɪvlɪ/

adv. serving to end an unsettled matter

syn: definitive

* Remember that your answer will be treated conclusively. You will not be permitted to change it.

معجون

concoction/kǝn’kak∫ǝn/

n. mixture

syn: blend; combination

* put this concoction into a baking dish and cook for half an hour.

سازگار بودن- موافق بودن- موافقت کردن

concur/kǝn’kɜr/

v. agree; happen at the same time

syn: accord; conform

* Andrew has concurred to lend me his car for the weekend.

موافقت- توافق- تقارن

convurrence/kǝn’kǝrǝns/

n. an agreement, usually by equals

syn: harmony; bargain

* The president & the congress are in concurrence concerning this appointment.

مناسب- مساعد

conducive/kǝn’dusɪv/

adj. likely to produce

syn: advantageous; beneficial

* This hot weather is not conducive to hard work.

پذیرفتن- قبول داشتن- نادیده گرفتن

condone/kǝn’doun/

v. forgive (wrong behavior)

syn: allow; ignore

* I can never condone violence, no matter what the circumstances are.

اعطا کردن- مشورت کردن- تبادل نظر کردن

confer/kǝn’fεr/

v. talk together

syn: consult; deliberate

* The president is conferring with his advisers.

محرمانه گفتن- اطمینان کردن

confide/kǝn’faɪn /

v. keep within the limits

syn: admit; breathe

* She didn’t confide her love to anyone, not even to her best friend.

مطمئن- اطمینان

confident/’kanfǝdǝnt /

n. belief in one’s own ability

syn: assured; certain

* kate feels confident of passing this exam because she studys so hard.

تأیید کردن- اثبات کردن

confirm/kǝn’fɜrm /

v. support; give proof of

syn: approve; endorse

* Seeing the two of them together confirmed our suspicions.

مصادره کردن- توقیف کردن- ضبط کردن

confiscate/’kanfǝ’skeɪt /

v. seixe officially

syn: remove; impound

* Any cigarettes found in school will be confiscated.

سفت شدن- ماسیدن- منجمد کردن

congeal/kǝn’dʒil /

v. become solid

syn: clot; curdle

* The Christmas candles congealed in the molds.

مطلوب- مساعد- مطبوع- دلپسند

congenial /kǝn’dʒiny∂l/

adj. in agreement with one’s tastes

syn: appropriate; attractive

* We spent an evening in congenial company.

مادزادی- فطری- ذاتی

congenital/kǝn’dʒεnǝtl/

adj. existing from one’s birth

syn: natural’ innate

* Regular prenatal checkups can help to reduce congenital birth defects.

تراکم- ازدحام- ترافیک

congestion/kǝn’dʒεt∫ǝn /

n. crowing

syn: jam; mass

* I always take the bus to work because the congestion in the city makes it difficult to find a parking place,

حدس زدن- احتمال دادن- گمان بردن

conjecture/kǝn’dʒkt∫ǝr /

v. guess

syn: estimate; suspect

* I guess you’re tired after your long journey.

خبره- صاحب نظر

connoisseur/’kanǝ’sǝr /

n. person with special knowledge of art, wine, etc.

syn: authority; buff

* The legal connoisseurs are trying to resist the reforms.

نتیجۀ- ناشی از- متعاقب

consequent/’kansǝ’kwεnt /

adj. following as a result

syn: ensuing; resulting

* The lack of rain and consequent poor harvests have led to food shortages.

با وجدان- دارای وجدان کار- جدی دقیق

conscientious/’kan∫i’εn∫ǝs/

adj. careful and honest

syn: diligent; faithful

* Mike is a very conscientious student; he studies in the library every night.

محافظه کار- عضو حزب محافظه کار

conservatinve/kǝn’sɜrvǝtɪv/

adj. not liking change

syn: cautious; guarded

* They have very conservative tastes. This design is too moderm for them.

حفظ کردن- ذخیره کردن- صرفه جویی کردن

conserve/kǝn’sǝrv /

v. use carefully

syn: hoard; save

* Higher charges will encourage people to conserve water.

سازکار یک جور

consistent/kǝn’sɪstǝnt /

adj. not changing

syn: accordant; coherent

* You should be consistent. If you punish Jason, you must punish Paul for doing the same thing.

استحکام بخشیدن- ادغام کردن- یکی کردن

consolidate/kǝn’salǝ’deɪt /

v. combine into one

syn: compact; unite

* We’re going to consolidate what we’ve learnt so far by doing some revision exercises today.

ناباوری- وحشت

consternation/’kanstǝr’ner∫ǝn /

n. great shock and fear

syn: anxiety; dismay

* We stared at each other in consternation.

مصرف کردن- صرف کردن از بین بردن

consume/kǝn’sum /

v. eat or drink

syn: devour; demolish

* The United States imports 45% of the oil it consumes.

آلوده کردن- خراب کردن- فاسدکردن

contaminate/kǝn’tæmǝ’neɪt /

v. make impure or dirty

syn: stain; corrupt

* The town’s drinking- water was contaminated with poisonous chemicals.

رضایت مشتری- خشنودی- رضایت خاطر

contentment/kantεntmǝnt /

n. happy or satisfied

syn: comfort; ease

* We finally made a decision that was to everyone’s contentment.

قرارداد بستن- پیمان بستن- کسب کردن

contract/kǝn’trækt /

v. arrange by formal agreement

syn: compress; negotiate

* His film has been contracted to supply all the furniture for the new building.

جر و بحث مشاجره- مناقشه

Controversy / ‘kantr∂’v∂rsi /

n. fierce argument; causing controversy

syn: dispute; discussion

* The plans for changing the city centre caused a great deal of controrersy.

معمول- متداول- سنتی

conventional/kǝn’vεn∫ǝnl /

adj. following accepted customs

syn: arbitrary; common

* The house was built with conventional materials but in a totally new style.

تبدیل- تغییر

conversion/kǝn’vεrʒǝn /

n. act of converting

syn: adaptation; change

* The conversion of the English system to the metric system will be difficult for the people in the United States.

دوستانه- صمیمانه- گرم- باصفا

convivial/kǝn’vɪviǝl /

adj. merry and friendly

syn: cordial; intimate

* Every one here is so convivial towards us.

متقاعد کردن- قانع کردن

convince/kǝn’vɪns /

v. to succeed in making sb believe sth.

syn: assure, confirm

She convinced him of the need to go back.

هسته- قسمت اصلی

core/kɔr /

n. central part

syn: heart; nucleus

* Overpopulation is at the core of many other problems including food shortages and inadequate housing.

چاق فربه

corpulent/’kɔrpyǝlǝnt /

adj. very fat

syn: beefy; fleshy

* You’ll get corpulent if you eat too much.

خوردگی- پوسیدگی- فرسایش

corrosion/kǝ’rouʒǝn /

n. the process of being destroyed by chemical action

syn: abrasion; destruction

* The were brought death and corrosion to the city.

محفل- جرگه- حلقه

coterie/koutǝre /

n. small group having something in common

syn: band; combination

Many young people start smoking because of pressure from their peer coterie.

شورا- انجمن

council/’kaunsǝl /

n. group of people appointed or elected to manage sth

syn: conference; committee

* The county council has decided to build a new road.

پند- توصیه- پیشنهاد

counsel/’kaunsǝl /

n. law legal advisor acting for someone

syn: advice; consultation

* Mr. Dean’s lawyers counselled him against making public statements.

قرار داد- قول نامه

covenant/’kʌvǝnǝnt /

n. formal agreement

syn: commitment; bargain

* When I agreed to help him I didn’t have any covenant for how much it would cost me.

(آدم) ترسو- بُزدل- جبون

coward/’kauǝrd/

n. one who lacks courage

syn: faint- heart; renegade

* After his friends called him a coward, he agreed to fight.

راحت- دوستانه- گرم

cozy/’kouzi/

adj. warm and comfortable

syn: cosy; friendly

* The room looked cozy and inviting in the fire light.

آرزو کردن- مردن برای- التماس کردن

crave/lreɪv/

v. have a very strong desire for

syn: desire; implore

* He craves attention from other people.

آفریدن- خلق کردن- بوجود آوردن

create/kri’eɪt/

v. cause something new; to exist; make

syn: beget; appoint

* All these changes will simply create confusion.

زودباور- صاف و صادق- ساده لوح

credulous/’krεdʒǝlǝs/

adj. gullible; inclined to believe too readily

syn: naive; trusting

* Donna is so credulous that she will believe anything you tell her.

کیش- مذهب- اعتقاد

creed/krid/

n. system of (esp.religious) beliefs

syn: articles; dogma

* Equal rights regardless of sex, race or creed are guaranteed by the constitution.

دمغ- افسرده- مأیوس

Crestfallen/’krεst’fɔkǝn/

adj. disappointed

syn: sad; depressed

* Lucy was deeply crestfallen at not being chosen for the team.

بحرانی- حاد- وخیم

critical/’krɪtɪkal/

adj. finding fault

syn: crucial; decisive

* The report was very critical of safety standards on the railways.

بسیار مهم- حساس- حیاتی

Crucial/’kru∫ǝl/

adj. of the greatest important

syn: central; important

* Early diagnosis of the illness is crucial for successful treatment.

خام- ابتدایی- ناپخته

crude/krud/

adj. in a natural state

syn: raw; rough

* Crude oil is refined by heating it in a closed still.

گشتن- گشت زدن

cruise/kruz/

adj. sail slowly for pleasure

syn: captain; glide

* A police car cruises past the school every hour.

خرده نان- خرده

crumb/krʌm/

n. small piece of dry food esp. bread

syn: bit of bread

* The children like to feed crumbs to the birds and squirrels in the park.

رمزی- مرموز- اسرارآمیز

cryptic/’krɪptɪk/

adj. with a hidden meaning

syn: abstrue; ambiguous

* In spite of efforts by several universities, the cryptic symbols on the mural remained a mystery.

آشپزی- پخت و پز- دست پخت

cuisine/kwɪzin/

n. style of cooking

syn: cooking

* She has been chosen as the best cook because of her special cuisine.

منتهی شدن به- انجامیدن به

culminate/’kʌlmǝ’neɪt/

v. reach the last and highest point

syn: climax; terminate

* The team’s efforts culminated in victory in the national championships.

مقصر- مجرم- گناهکار

culpable/’kʌlpǝbǝl/

adj. deserving blame

syn: guilt; fault

* Whether or not he is culpable will be determined by the jury.

هم اکنون- اینک- فعلاً

currently/’kǝrǝntlɪ/

adr.of the present time

syn: up to date; prevalent

* He is currently working in Spain.

تند- خشن- خشک

curt/kǝrt/

adj. impolitely short

syn: harsh; rough

* She gave him a curt reply and slammed the phone down.

مختصر کردن- کاهش دادن

curtail/kǝr’teɪl/

v. shorten; reduce

syn: abbreviate; abridge

* Doctors have advised us to curtail the amount of fat in our diets.

بدبین – منفی

Cynical /’sɪnɪkal/

adj. person who sees little good in anything and shows it by making unkind remarks

syn: contemptuous; pessimistic

* She takes a cynical view of politics.

خنجر- دشنه

dagger/’dægǝr/

n. short knife used as a weapon

syn: stiletto; dirk

* He plunged a dagger into her heart.

خسارت- زیان

damage/’dæmɪdʒ /

n. harm; loss

syn: destruction; detriment

* The arms scandal did considerable damage to relations between the two countries.

شجاع- جسور

dauntless/dɔntlεs/

adj. not discouraged

syn: bold; brave

* Not many people are dauntless enough to say exactly what they think.

آویزان بودن- تاب خوردن- تکان تکان خوردن

dangle/’dæŋgǝl/

v. hang loosely

syn: droop; swing

* He dangled the keys in front of me, “you can drive if you want.” He said.

بن بست

Dead end/’dεdεnd//

n. a street that is only open at one end

syn: blind alley; standstill

* You should never overtake on a dead end.

آراسته- شیک- خوش لباس

debonair/’dεbǝ’nεǝr/

adj. cheerful & fashionably dressed

syn: modish; stylish

* Tom remained debonair throughout his illness.

بازمانده ها- بقایا

debris/dǝ’bris/

n. broken remains; ruins

syn: brash; drift

* we went to look at the debris of the castle last night.

بدهکار

debtor/dɪ’beɪter/

n. person who owes money

syn: bankrupt; bottower

* The accounting office sends a bill to all of the company’s debtors at the end of the month.

دهه- ده سال

decade/’dεkeɪd/

n. period of years

* The decade from 1960 through 1970 was marred by race riots and political assassinations in the United States.

مرحوم

deceased/dɪ’sist/

adj. dead

syn: defunct; finished

* He inherited the house from his deceased parents.

ادب- لطف- بزرگواری

decency/’disǝnsi/

n. being socially acceptable

syn: decorum; modesty

* She had the decency to admit that it was her fault.

عرشه

deck/dεk/

n. floor of a ship

* I’m going out on deck for some fresh air.

رد کردن- عذر خواستن- سرباز زدن

decline/dɪ’klaɪn/

v. become worse or less

syn: avoid; deny

* Thank you for the invitation but I’m afraid I have to decline.

سالخورده- فرسوده- قراضه

decrepit/dɪ’krεpɪt/

adj. weak from old age

syn: frail; antiquated

* The city buses are in decrepit condition, but the transit company does not have funds to purchase new ones.

وقف کردن- اختصاص دادن به

dedicate/’dεdǝ’keɪt /

v. give to a serious purpose

syn: address; assign

* He dedicated his life to helping the poor.

عمل – کردار

deed/did/

n. lit something done; action

syn: act; performance

* Deeds are more important than words.

غیبت- قصور

default/dɪfɔlt/

n. failure to fulfil a contract, pay a debt

syn: absence; neglect

* They won by default, because the other team didn’t turn up.

عیب- اشکال

defect/’difεkt

n. something that is wrong with

syn: blemish; desert

* Because of a defect in his hearing the teacher gave him a seat in the front row.

کمبود- نقص- عیب

deficiency/dɪfɪ∫ǝsi/

n. something that is not good enough

syn: dearth; flaw

* The problem were caused by deficiencies in the design.

از شکل انداختن- از ریخت انداختن

deform/dɪ’fɔrm /

v. change the shape of sth so that it is unnatural

syn: distort; corrupt

* In spite of several corrective operations, his foot is still badly deformed.

حذف کردن

delete/ dɪ’lit /

v. to cross out or leave out part of sth.

syn: cancel; erase

* I will not be able to attend the meeting. Delete as appropriate.

عمداً- تعمداً- آگاهانه

deliberately/dɪlɪbrɪtlɪ/

adv. thinking about sth.

syn: heedful; thoughtful

* He deliberately left the letter on her desk so that she would find it.

وهم- تصور باطل- خیال واهی

delusion/dɪ’luʒǝn/

n. a false belief

syn: deception; error

* He seems to be under the delusion that he’s popular.

سقوط ورشکستگی- فوت

demise/dɪ’maɪz/

n. death of a person

syn: collapse; decease

* Poor business decisions led to the sompany’s demise.

خراب کردن- نفی کردن- درهم کوبیدن

demolish/dɪ’mal∫/

v. to destroy sth

syn: defeat; raze

* She demolished his argument in one sentence.

سوراخ کردن- قر کردن

dent/dεnt/

to damage sth by hitting it and making a hollow place in it.

syn: depress; indent

* I hit a wall and dented the front of the car.

وابسته- متکی به

dependent/’pεndǝnt/

adj. needing sb/sth to support you

syn: conditional; determined by

* The industry is heavily dependent on governmentfunding.

اسف انگیز- تأسف آور- مایۀ تأسف

deplorable/dɪ’plɔrǝbl/

adj. morally bad and deserving disapproval

syn: appalling; dire

* Our mistake had deplorable results and I was fired my job.

ارزش (چیزی) کاهش یافتن- از ارزش افتادن

depreciate/dɪpri∫I’eɪt/

v. to lose value, esp as a result of use or age.

syn: decrease; deflate

* I feel that I must depreciate the allocation of funds for such an unproductive purpose.

محرومیت- فقر

deprivation/’dεprǝ’veɪ∫ǝn/

n. a statement that sth is not true

syn: denial; denudation

* The minister issued a deprivation that he was involved in the scandal.

محروم کردن- بی نصیب کردن

deprive/dɪ’praɪv/

v. to prevent sb/ sth from having sth;

syn: divest; bereave

* His father deprived him of his allowance as a punishment for misbehaving.

نمایندگی (کسی را) را عهده گرفتن- جانشین(کسی) بودن

deputize/’dεpyǝtiɪz/

v. to act for sb who is absent or unable to do sth.

syn: substitute; replace

* Margaret Thatcher was deputized as prime minister by John Major.

به مسخره گرفتن- استهراء کردن- ریشخند کردن

deride/dɪ’raɪd/

v. to say that sth is ridiculous

syn: belittle; disdain

* The other boys derided him because of his funny haircut.

بدست آوردن- کسب کردن

derive/dɪraɪv/

v. to get sth from sth

syn: acquire; gain

* I derive great satisfaction from my work.

فرود آمدن- پایین آمدن- سرازیر شدن

descend/dɪsεnd/

v. to go down to a lower place.

syn: fall; drop

* The plan started to descend and a few minutes later we landed.

تعیین کردن- مشخص کردن- در نظر گرفتن

designate/’dεzɪg’neɪt/

v. to show or mark sth

syn: allot; describe

* These arrows designate the emergency exits.

به رغمِ- برخلافِ- با وجود اینکه

despite/dɪ’spaɪt/

prep. used to show that sth happened although you would not ecpect it.

syn: against; in spite of

* The scheme went ahead despite public opposition.

خراب کردن- ویران کردن

destroy/dɪ’strɔɪ/

v. to damage sth so badly

syn: demolish; break

* The defeat destroyed his confidence.

یافتن- پیداکردن- پی بردن به

detect/dɪtεkt/

v. to notice or discover sth that is difficult to see, etc.

syn: ascertain; disern

* I detected a slight change in his attitude.

وخامت تیرگی(رابطه) خرابی

deterioration/dɪ’tɪriǝ’rǝɪ∫ǝn

n. to become worse

syn: decay; decline

* Many of the old houses had fallen into deterioration.

زیان بخش- مضر- به ضررِ- به زیانِ

detrimental/’dεtrǝmǝntl/

adj. harming or damaging sb/ sth

syn: adverse; destructive

* Too much alcohol is detrimental to your health.

متنفر بودن- تنفر داشتن- منزجر بودن

detest/dɪ’tεst/

v. to hate or dislike

syn: abhor; deplore

* They absolutely detest each other

ویران کننده- ویرانگر- خانمان برانداز

devastating/’dεvǝ’steɪtɪŋ/

adj.that destroys sth conpletely

syn: destructive; disastrous

* The closure of the factory was a devastating blow to the workers.

منحرف شدن- دور شدن- دوری جستن

deviate/’divi’eɪt/

v. to change the way you think or behave

syn: depart; differ

* He never once deviated from his Christian principles.

ابداع کردن- اختراع کردن- ساختن

devise/dɪ’vaɪz/

v. to invent a plan, system

syn: arrange; construct

* They’ve devised a plan for keeping traffic out of the city centre.

شیطانی- اهریمنی- پلید

diabolical/’daɪǝ’balɪkǝl/

adj. very cruel or bad

syn: damnable; devilish

* we had a diabolical journey traffic jams all the way.

دوگانگی- دوشاخگی- تقسیم دو جزئی

dichotomy/daɪ’katǝmi/

n. division into

syn: isolation; distinction

* we must make a dichotomy between classical and popular music here.

غذای روزمره- رژیم غذایی- برنامه غذایی روزانه

diet/’daɪǝt/

n. the food that a person or animal usually eats.

syn: dietary; nutrition

* The peasants live on a diet of rice & vegetables.

فقدان اعتماد به نفس- تزلزل

diffidence/’dɪfɪdǝns/

n. lacking confidence

syn: insecurity; shyness

* Although he displays diffidence with strangers, he is very self-confident with friends.

از موضوع منحرف شدن- حاشیه رفتن

digress/daɪ’grεs/

v. move away from the subject

syn: deviate; depart

* The lecturer digressed from the subject so often that it was difficult to take notes.

گشاد شدن-گشاد کردن- شرح و بسط دادن

dilate/daɪ’eɪt/

v. become wider by stretching

syn: broaden; elaborate

* The shutter of a camera will dilate in darkness in a way similar to the pupil of one’s eye.

دو راهی- تنگنا

dilemma/dǝ’lεmǝ/

n. difficult choice between two things

syn: plight; predicament

* Doctors face the moral dilemma of when to keep patients alive artificially and when to let them die.

سخت کوش- کوشا- ساعی

diligent/’dɪlǝdʒǝnt/

adj. steady effort

syn: active; attentive

* Mr. carson’s secretary is a very diligent worker, she always stays at the office ling after everyone else has gone home.

ریز- خرد- کوچک

diminutive/dɪ’mɪnyǝtɪv/

adj. very small

syn: tiny; minute

* Bill is a diminutive form of the name William.

خفه- گرفته

dingy/’dɪndʒi/

adj. dirty and faded

syn: colourless; dark

* Despite its dingy exterior, the little house was very bright and cheerful inside.

هدایت کردن- راهنمایی کردن- راه را نشان دادن

Direct/dǝ’rεkt/

v. control; manage

syn: govern; lead

* I was directed to an office at the end of the corridor.

فاجعه- مصیبت- بلا

disaster/dɪ’zæstǝr/

n. sudden serious misfortune

syn: calamity; catastrophe

* The school play was an absolute disaster.

منحل کردن- منحل شدن

disband/dɪs’bænd/

v. break up

syn: scatter; dissolve

* After the elections, the nominating committee will be disbanded.

دور انداختن- کنار گذاشتن

discard/dɪs’kard/

v. get rid of; throw away

syn: abandon; dispense with

I would like to discard the old tests and purchase the revised editions for next semester.

تشخیص دادن- تمیز دادن- دیدن

discern/dɪ’sǝrn/

v. see or understand esp with difficulty

syn: ascertain; determine

* I discerned a note of anger in his voice.

ناراحت کردن- اوقات (کسی را) تلخ کردن

disxonxert/’dɪskan’sǝrt/

v. worry uspet

syn: confuse; hinder

She was disconcerted when everyone stopped talking & listened to her.

ناراضی- ناخشنود- دمغ

disgruntled/dɪs’grʌntǝld/

adj. annoyed & disappointed

syn: dissastisfied; sullen

* I shall be extremely disgruntled if he turns up late again.

فرستادن- ارسال کردن- اعزام کردن

dispatch/dɪ’sæt∫/

v. send

syn: transmit; perform

* Your order will be dispatched from our warehouse within days.

صرف نظر کردن (از) کنار گذاشتن

Dispense with/dɪ’spεns wiθ/

v. do without

syn: abolish; discard

* They decided to dispense with luxuries and live a simple life.

متفرق کردن- پراکنده کردن- پخش کردن

disperse/dɪ’spǝrs/

v. to separate and go in different directions

syn: distribut; dispel

When the meeting was over. The group dispersed.

انهدام دوری ریزی- خنثی سازی

disposal/dɪ’spouzǝl/

n. the act of getting rid of sth

syn: assignment; removal

* They put their house at my disposal.

ننگین- غیر قابل اعتماد

disreputable/dɪs’rεpyǝtǝbǝl/

adj. not deserving to be trusted

syn: derogatory; disgraceful

* A disreputable area is full of criminal activity.

تشریح کردن- تجزیه و تحلیل کردن

dissect/dɪ’sεkt/

v. to cup up a dead body, a plant in order to examine its structure

syn: analyse; break down

* The literary critics dissected every sentence in the essay.

ترویج کردن- منتشر کردن

disseminate/dɪ’sεmǝ’neɪt/

v. spread

syn: promulgate; broaden

* The world cup soccer Games will be disseminated internationally by television satellites.

مشاجره نزاع

dissension/dɪ’sεn∫ǝn/

n. disagreement; argument

syn: conflict; dissent

* There is some dissension within the Labour party on these policies.

حل کردن- ناپدید شدن

dissolve/dɪ’zalv/

v. make a solid to become liquid

syn: break up; disappear

* Dissolve two tablets in cold water.

پریشان- آشفته

distraught/dɪ’strɔt/

adj. ectremely sad & upset

syn: anxious; distressed

* I was quite distraught at losing my purse.

منحرف کردن- برگرداندن

divert/daɪ’vǝrt/

v. to change the direction or purpose of sb/sth

syn: avert; deflect

* Government money was diverted from defence to education & training.

افشا کردن- برملا کردن

divulge/daɪ’vʌldʒ/

v. to teel a secret

syn: confess; declare

* The phone companies refused to divulge details of their costs.

سر به راه رام- آرام

docile/’dasǝl/

adj. quiet & easy to control

syn: controlled; quiet

* Please keep the children docile when I’m on the phone.

اهدا کردن- دادن

donate/’douneɪt/

v. to give money or goods to an organization

syn: contribute; proffer

* She donated a large sum of money to cancer research.

غیر فعال- خفته- خاموش

dormant/’dɔrmǝnt/

adj. not active for sometime

syn: asleep; inactive

* This virus remains dormant in the body.

چرت زدن- چرت

doze/dǝuz/

v. to sleep lightly and/ or for a short time

syn: drop off; sleep

* He was dosing in front of the television.

کشیدن کشاندن- روی زمین کشیدن

drag/dræg/

v. to pull sb/ sth along with difficulty

syn: draw; haul

* The box was so heavy that we had to drag it along the floor.

خیس کردن

drench/drεnt∫/

v. to make sb/sth completely wet

syn: douse; drown

* We got absolutely drenched in the storm.

خشکسالی

drought/draut/

n. a long period of weather which is too dry

syn: aridity; dryness

* Drought has effected many countries in Africa.

خواب آلود- خواب آور- بی حال کننده

drowsy/’drauzi/

adj. very sleepy

syn: dazed; drugged

* The heat made me feel drowsy.

مشکوک- مظنون- دودل

dubious/’dubiǝs/

adj. not sure or certain.

syn: ambiguous; doubtful

* I’m very dubious about whether we’re doing the right thing.

بادوام- ماندنی- ماندگار

durable/’durǝbǝl/

adj. that is able to last a long time

syn: abiding; constant

Even though leather gloves ate much more expensive, they are more durable than vinyl.

مدت- زمان- طی مدت

duration/du’reɪ∫ǝn/

n. the time that sth lasts

syn: continuation; extent

* Please remain seated for the duration of the flight.

شفق- غروب- غروب آفتاب

dusk/dʌsk /

n. the time in the evening when the sun has already gone down & it’s nearly dark.

syn: sunset; inghtfall

* Tge fireworks display will begin at dusk.

زمین لرزه- زلزله

earthquake/’ǝrθkweɪk/

n. a sudden violent movement of the earth’s surface.

syn: shake; earth- tremor

* Thousands of people were killed & many more left homeless by the earthquake.

آسان گیر- راحت- پرتحمل

easygoing/’izi’gouɪn/

adj. calm, relaxed & not easily worried

syn: relaxed; comfortable

* Her parents are very easygoing. They let her do what she wants.

نامتعارف- غیر عادی

eccentri/ɪk’sεntrɪk/

adj. strange or unusual

syn: abnormal; bizsrre

* People said he was mad but I think he was just slightly eccentric.

اقتصادی

economical/’εkǝ’namɪkal/

adj. costing less time, money, fuel

syn: careful; cheap

* The country faces growing economical problems.

اثر گذاشتن روی- موجب شدن

effect/ɪ’fεkt/

v. to cause sth to happen

syn: accomplish; create

* All these changes will simply effect confusion.

لایق- قابل- با کفایت

efficient/ɪ’fɪ∫ǝnt/

adj. able to work well without making mistakes

syn: capable; effective

* You must find a more, efficient way of organizing your time.

سپری شدن- [زمان] گذشتن

elapse/ɪ’læps/

v. used about time to pass

syn: go by; pass

* The street was crowded and time was elapsing slowly.

مسّن- سالخورده

elderly/’εldǝrli/

adj. old

syn: aged; senile

* The elderly people need special care in winter.

به برق وصل کردن- به هیجان آوردن

electrify/ɪ’lεktrǝ’faɪ/

v. to supply sth with electricity

syn: amaze; astonish

The reilways are being electrified as quickly as possible.

موجب شدن درآوردن

elicit/ɪ’lɪsɪt/

v. to get information, facts, a reaction

syn: result; generate

* I think this new product will elicit a lot of income for the company.

حذف کردن- کنار گذاشتن

eliminate/ɪ’lɪmǝ’neɪt/

v. to remove sb/sth that is not wanted or needed

syn: delete; expel

* We must try and eliminate wastage.

نخبگان- برگزیده- تراز اول

elite/ɪ’li:t/

n. a social group that is thought to be the best or most important

syn: best; nobility

* This family has so many elites in spite of many difficulties.

فصاحت- بلاغت- زبان آوری

eloquence/’εlǝkwǝns/

adj. able to speak well & influence other people

syn: fluent

well- expressed

* The actor’s eloquence moved his andience to tears.

روشن کردن- توضیح دادن- شرح دادن

elucidate/ɪ’lusǝ’deɪt/

v. to make understandable

syn: explain; illustrate

* Professor Rhode’s explanation served to obscure rather than to elucidate the theory.

تزیین کردن- زینت دادن

embellish/ɪ’mbεlɪ∫/

v. to add sth in order to make a thing more attractive

syn: adorn; decorate

* I think it’s about time we embellished the living room.

گریز پا- فرار- مبهم

elusive/ɪ’lusɪv/

adj. not easy to find, catch or remember

syn: baffling; puzzling

* The instructions were so elusive that I was absolutely confused.

مهاجرت کردن

emigrate/’εmǝ’greɪt/

v. to leave your own country to go & live in another

* They emigrated to Australia twenty years ago.

کارفرما

employer/ɪm’plɔɪǝ(r)/

n. a person or company that employs other perople

syn: boss; business

* The car factory is a large employer in this town.

تجاوز کردن- غصب کردن

encroach/ɪn’krǝut∫/

v. to take away part of sth

syn: invade; intrude

* I do hope that I do not encroach upon your free time.

افزایش دادن- افزودن به

enhance/ɪn’hæns/

v. to improve sth or to make sth look better

syn: boost; improve

* Her beautiful clothes enhance her appearance.

معما- راز

enigma/ɪ’nɪgmǝ/

n. something that is difficult to understant

syn: riddle; puzzle

* The reasons for his action have remained an enigma to historians.

فرستادن- پخش کردن

emit/ɪ’mɪt/

v. to send out sth

syn: diffuse; discharge

* Radiation is emitted as a cousequence of a nuclear reaction.

تأکید- اصرار

emphasis/’εmfǝsɪs/

n. the force that you give to a word or phrase

syn: attention; force

* There’s a lot of emphasis on science at our school.

پیروی کردن- تقلید کردن

emulate/’εmyǝ’leɪt/

v. to try to do sth as well as

syn: compete with; imitate

* Dennis felt that he had to emulate the success of his famous father.

سعی کردن- کوشیدن- تلاش کردن

endeavor/ɪn’dεvǝr/

v. to try

syn: aim; at tempt

* May you have good luck in everything that you endeavor to do.

انرژی نیرو

energy/’εnǝrdʒi/

n. the ability to be very active

syn: activity; power

* Perhaps if you took vitamins you would have more energy.

بی حال کردن- سست کردن

enervate/ɪ’nǝrveɪt/

v. to weaken

syn: to debilitate; to worn out

* the diplomats from both countries were enervated by the long series of talks.

اتفاق افتادن- رخ دادن

ensue/ɪn’su/

v. to happen after

syn: arise; attend

* Can you describe to the police what ensued after you left the party?

اغوا کردن- وسوسه کردن- اغفال کردن

entice/ɪn’taɪs/

v. to persuade sb to do sth by offering sth nice

syn: attract; coax

* Advertisements try to entice people into buying more things thhan they need.

حسود- حسودانه

envious/’εnviǝs/

adj. fealing or showing envy

syn: covetous; jealous

* She was envious of her sister’s success.

تصور کردن- پیش بینی کردن

envisage/ɪn’vɪzɪdʒ/

v. to think of sth as being possible in the future.

syn: foresee; predict

* I don’t envisage any problems with this.

دوره- عصر

epoch/’εpǝk/

n. a period of time in history

syn: date; period

* The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of an epoch of exodus from rural areas to cities.

منصفانه- عادلانه- معقول

equitable/’εkwɪtǝbǝl/

adj. fair & just

syn: honest; proper

* That’s not the equitable salary for these workers.

دوپهلو- گنگ- مبهم

equivocal/ɪ’kwɪvǝkǝl/

adj. to be confusing

syn: dubious; vague

* She looked equivocal when I tried to explain this problems for her.

ریشه کن کردن- از بین بردن

eradicate/ɪ’rædǝ’keɪt/

v. to destory sth completely

syn: abolich; erase

* He tried to eradicate the memory of those terrible years from his mind.

عالم- فاضل

erudite/’εryǝ’daɪt/

adj. educated person

syn: scholarly; wise

* All our teachers were erudite at public school.

افزایش یافتن- بالا رفتن- شدت گرفتن

escalate/’εskǝ’leɪt/

v. to become stronger or more serious

syn: expand; intensify

* The terrorist attacks escalated tension in the capital.

اسکورت- محافظ- همراهی

escort/’εskɔrt/

n. a person or vehicle that goes with and protects sb

syn: aide; guard

* The president’s car was escorted by several police cars.

مخصوصاً خصوصاً

especially/ɪ’spε∫ǝli/

adv. to an unusual degree; in particular

syn: mainly; chiefly

* He was very disappointed with his mark in the exam especially as he had worked so hard for it.

ضروری- لازم

essential/ɪ’sεn∫ǝl/

adj,n. absolutely necessary

syn: ideal; crucial

* Essential medical supplies will be delivered to the area by plane.

محترم شمردن- احترام گذاشتن به

esteem/ɪ’stim /

v. great respect

syn: worship; adoration

* We should esteem other people’s cultures and values.

مدح- ستایش

evlogy/’yulǝdʒi/

n. speech in praise of someone

syn: acclaim; adoration

* The film received widespread critical eulogy.

گنگ- دوپهلو

evasive/ɪ’veɪsɪsv/

adj. trying to avoid sth

syn: cunning; deceitful

* Anna always gives an evasive answer.

بیرون کردن- اخراج کردن

evict/ɪ’vɪkt/

v. to force sb to leave the house or land where she/ he lives

syn: cast out; chuck out

* They were evicted for not paying the rent.

تکامل یافتن- شکل گرفتن

evolve/ɪ’valv/

v. to develop from simple early forms

syn: derive; descend

* His style of painting has evolved gradually over the past 20 years.

دقیق- صحیح با دقت

exact/ɪg’zækt/

adj. correct; accurate

syn: definite; faultless

* you need to be very exact when you calculate the costs.

عصبانی کردن- خشمگین کردن

exasperate/ɪg’zæspǝ’reɪt/

v. to make sb angry; to annoy

syn: enrage; irritate

* She was exasperated by the lack of progtess.

فراتر رفتن از- تجاوز کردن از

exceed/ɪk’sid/

v. to be greater than sth

syn: beat; outrun

* He was stopped by the police for exceeding the speed limit.

صرف نظر کردن- مانع شدن

exclude/ɪk’sklud/

v. to prevent sb/ sth from getting in

syn: ban; eliminate

* The police had excluded the possibility that the child had run away.

خسته- هلاک

exhausted/ɪg’zɔstɪd/

adj. very tired

syn: disable; empty

* I’m exhausted of listening to the same thing again & again.

شعف- شادمانی

exhilaration/ɪg’zɪlǝ’reɪ∫n/

n. make sb feel very happy

syn: cheer; delight

* There exhilarations for winning team! (ʻHip, hip, hurrahʼthree times)

خارج شدن- خروج- در خروجی

exit/’εgzɪt/

n.v. a door or way out of a public building

syn: departure; doorway

* When he saw her coming, he made a quick exit.

[قیمت] گزاف- بیش از حد

exorbitant/ɪg’zɔrbǝtǝnt/

adj. much more expensive

syn: enormous; ectreme

* There is an exorbitant amount of work involved in this.

غیر بومی- خارجی- کمیاب

exotix/ɪg’zɔtɪk/

adj. unusual or interesting because it comes from a different country

syn: unusual; odd

* What an ecotic hat!

منبسط شدن- گسترش یافتن

expand/ɪk’spænd /

v. to become bigger

syn: amplify; elaborate

* Metals expand when they are heated.

گستره- پهنه- محوطه

expanse/ɪk’spæns/

n. large open area

syn: extent; space

* From the roof we could see the full expanse of the park.

اخراج کردن- بیرون کردن

expel/ɪk’spεl/

v. to force sb to leave a country

syn: ban; cast out

* The government has expelled all foreign journalists.

به درد نخور- دور انداختنی- بی مصرف

expendable/ɪk’spεndǝbl/

adj. not worth saving

syn: outlay; output

* Expendable products increased in the last year.

مهلت (چیزی) منقضی شدن- زمان (چیزی) گذشتن

expire/ɪk’spaɪǝr/

v. to come to the end of the time

syn: cease; depart

* ۵۰۰ people lost their jobs when the company expired trading.

صریح- بی پرده- رُک

ecplicit/ɪk’splɪsɪt/

adj. clear, not making anything difficult to understand

syn: absolute; certain

I gave you explicit instructions not to touch anything.

بهره کشی کردن- استثمار کردن

exploit/ɪk’splɔɪt/

v. to use sth or to treat sb unfairly

syn: impose; profit by

* Third world countries are often exploited by the richer nations.

توضیح دادن- شرح دادن

expound/ɪk’spound/

v. to describe sth

syn: explain; define

* She expounded how I should fill in the form.

صریح- روشن

express/ɪk’sprεs/

adj. make known by words or looks

syn: clear; exact

* It was her express wish that he should have the picture after her death.

فی البداهه- بدون آمادگی قبلی

extempore/ɪk’stεmpour/

adv. prepare sth abruptly

syn: offhand; perfunctory

* I can’t teel you what it’s worth extempore.

وسیع- گسترده

extensive/ɪk’stεnsɪv/

adj. large in area or amount

syn: broad; general

The house has extensive grounds.

منقرض نابود

extinct/ɪk’stɪŋkt/

adj. no longer existing

syn: dead; abolished

* Tigers are nearly extinct in the wild.

تحسین کردن- ستایش کردن

extol/ɪk’stoul/

v. worship sb or sth

syn: adore; apprrciate

* The art of Van Gogh was not extoled during his own life time.

فوق برنامه

extracurricular/’εkstrǝ’rɪkyǝlǝr/

adj. not part of the notmal course of studies.

* The school offers many ectracurricular activities such as sport, music, drama, etc.

ولخرج اسراف کار

extravagant/ɪk’strævǝgǝnt/

adj. spending or costing too much money.

syn: costly; fanciful

* The advertisements made extravagant claims for the new medicine.

شاد- سرمست از

exultant/ɪg’zʌltǝnt/

adj. make happy for sth

syn: cheerful; joyful

* She doesn’t feel exultant about the salary she’s been offered.

راحت- آسان

facile/’feɪ∫ǝl/

adj. not carefully thought out

syn: easy; simple

* Her parents are very facile. They let her do what she wants.

هوس- موج- مُد

fad/fæd/

n. sth will probably not last long

syn: whim; fashion

* There is a fad for people to retire earlier.

به تردید افتادن- مردد بودن- تزلزل نشان دادن

falter/’fɔltǝr/

v. to become weak or move in a weak way

syn: hesitate

halt

* Since he is shy about speaking in public, his voice always falters a little at the beginning of his speeches.

قحطی کمبود- گرسنگی

famine/’fæmɪn/

n/ a lack of food in a large area

syn: hunger; destitution

* Unless it rains this week, the loss of crops could result in a famine.

متعصب- افراطی

fanatic/fǝ’nætɪk/

adj. feeling very strongly or too enthusiastic about sth

syn: bigoted; enthusiastic

* Mike is fanatic about keeping things tidy.

گذراندن- از عهده برآمدن- انجام دادن

fare/fεr/

v. to do sth successfully

syn: get along; manage

* How did you fare in your examination?

مجذوب کردن- شیفته خود کردن

fascinate/’fæsǝ’neɪt/

v. to attract or interst sb very much

syn: absorb; captivate

* He fascinated the children with his magic tricks.

کار عظیم- شاهکار- معجزه

feat/fit/

n. something you do that shows great strength, skill or courage

syn: deed; act

* That new bridge is a feat of engineering

شهریه- دستمزد- پرداخت کردن حق الزحمه

fee/fi/

n. the money you pay for sth

syn: bill; account

* We can’t affors private school fees.

ضعیف- نحیف

Feeble/’fibǝl/

adj. with no energy or power

syn: powerless; weak

* The child was feeble with hunger.

جنایتکار- جانی

felon/’fεlǝn/

n. serious crime e.g. murder

syn: culprit; criminal

* young felons should not be sent to adult prisons.

وحشی- شدید

ferocious/fǝ’rou∫ǝs/

adj. very violent

syn: barbaric; cruel

* The demonstration started peacefully but later turned ferocious.

حمل کردن- بردن

ferry/’fεri/

v. carry people or the other things

syn: carry; convey

* Could you ferry us across to the island?

شور- اشتیاق

fervor/’fǝrvǝr/

n. strong feeling

syn: ardour; eagerness

* Children are usually full of fervor.

دعوا کردن- نزاع کردن

feud/fyud/

v. a long and serious quarrel between people.

syn: conflict; strife

* Romeo’s & Juliet’s families had been feuding for generations.

شکست کامل- مایۀ آبرو ریزی

fiasco/fi’æskou/

n. the ridiculous failure of organized event

syn: washout; bust

* Our last party was a complete fiasco.

خشن- بی رحم

fierce/fɪrs/

adj. angry & aggtessive

syn: brutal; ctuel

* The house was guarded by fierce dogs.

مناسب- شایستگی- صلاحیت

fitness/fɪtnǝs/

n. the quality of being suitable

syn: apt; pertinent

* I think this shirt is fitness for John not paul.

پرزرق و برق- رنگارنگ

flamboyant/flæm’bɔɪǝnt/

adj. very easily noticed

syn: colourful; showy

* Our theatrical pages were inundated with press releases from the flamboyant producer.

تملق (کسی را) گفتن- مبالغه کردن

flatter/’flætǝr/

v. to praise sb too much

syn: adulate; praise

* He flatters himself that he speaks French fluenty.

فرار کردن- ناپدید شدن از

flee/fli/

v. to run away or escape from sth

syn: abscond; get away

* When the hunter fired his gun, the tiger turned and fled.

چشمک زدن- درخشیدن

flicker/’flɪkǝr/

v. to move lightly and quickly up and down

syn: flash; glimmer

* His eyelids flickered for a second and then he lay still.

نازک بدون استحکام بی دوام

flimsy/;dlɪmzi/

adj. light and thin

syn: delicate; inadequate

* Newspaper is too flimsy to be used for a kite, the wind would tear it to pieces.

به هوا انداختن- پرت کردن

flip/flǝrt/

v. to throw sth into the air & make it turn over

syn: cast; throw

* The truck ran off the road & flipped over in the ditch.

لاس زدن- عشوه آمدن برای

flirt/flǝrt/

v. behave as if sexually attracted

syn: chat up; dally

* Who was that boy Irene was flirting with at the party?

دست و پا زدن- تقلا کردن

flounder/’flaundǝr/

v. to move with difficulty or to struggle

syn: blunder; falter

* When they tried to run in the deep snow, they floundered & fell.

احمق- احمقانه

foolish/’fulɪ∫/

adj. silly; not sensible

syn: crazy; absurd

* She felt very foolish after she realized her mistake.

از هفت دولت آزاد- فارغ البال- آزادِ آزاد

footloose/’fulɪ∫ /

adj. free to go wherever one wants and do what one likes

syn: tranquil; at ease

* London is very fooloose on Sunday.

تحمل- صبر- شکیبایی

forbearance/’fɔbεǝrǝns/

n. patient forgiveness

syn: calmness; toleration

* I’m sorry, I’ve got no forbearance with people who don’t even try.

گذشتن از- از (رودخانه ای) گذشتن

ford/fɔrd/

v. a place where one can cross a river without a dridge

syn: go beyond; leave

* Before the bridge was built, people used to ford this river.

پیش بینی کردن

foresee/fɔr’si/

v. to know or guess that sth is going to happen in the future.

syn: anticipate; foretell

* I don’t foresee any problems in transferring funds from your saving account to your cheeking account.

ساختن- ایجاد کردن

form/fɔrm/

v. to make or organize sth

syn: build; assemble

* They formed a group called ʻCitizens for Natureʼ.

قبلاً- سابقاً

formerly/’fɔrmǝrlɪ /

adv.in the past; previously

syn: already; before

* The hotel was formerly a castle.

نقطه فوت- هنر- تخصص

forte/fɔrm/

n. sth someone does particularly well

syn: apecialty; shill

* His forte is in heart surgrty, he doesn’t have any knowledge about this case.

در دست انتشار [کتاب]- آینده

forthcoming/’fɔrθ’kʌmɪŋ/

adj. happening soon

syn: available; imminent

* look in the local paper for a list of forthcoming events.

مؤسس- بنیان گذار

founder/’daundǝr/

n. sho establishes sth

syn: author; designer

* The founder showed us her design for the new theatre.

پرنده- مرغ

fowl/faul/

n. a bird which can be eaten.

syn: hen; domestic bird

* The boys went hunting for pheasant and other wild fowl.

بخش- قسمت- جزء

fraction/’fræk∫ǝn/

n. a small part or amount

syn: component; factor

* Computers solve mathematical operations in a fraction of the time that it take a technician to solve them.

شکستن- ترک خوردن

fracture/’drækt∫ǝ/

v. to break sth

syn: split; crack

* He didn’t think that he had broken his arm, but the x-rays revealed a slight fracture.

کلاهبرداری- فریب کاری- تقلب

fraud/frɔd/

n. deceiving or tricking sb in order to get money

syn: deceit; hoax

* This identification is a fraud; the signatures do not match.

فراوان- مکرر- به دفعات

frequently/’fri’kwεntlɪ/

adv. happening often

syn: commonly; habitaully

* Buses run frequently from the city centre to the airport.

ناراحت بودن- عصبانی بودن- بی تابی کردن

fret/frεt/

v. to be unhappy or worried about sth

syn: agonise; bother

* Don’t fret about getting a job; with your qualifications I am sure that you have nothing to worry about.

بسیار سرد- یخ زده

frigid/’frɪdʒɪd/

adj. very cold

syn: aloof; cool

* The frigid temperatures in the Arctic caused many hardships for the men in the expedition.

سبک سری- کم عقلی

frivolity/drɪ’valǝti/

n. silly behaviour

syn: trifling; jest

* This is a serious frivolity. Please don’t make these remarks.

مقتصد- صرفه جو

frugal/’frugǝl/

adj. not wasteful

syn: careful; thrifty

* Don’t worry. she’s a frugal wife.

کوره- تنور

furnace/’fǝrnɪs/

n. a large enclosed fire that is used for heating water

syn: oven

* cook in a hot furnace for 50 minutes.

دزدانه- پنهانی- مرموز

furtive/’fǝrtɪv/

adj. secret

syn: hidden; sly

* While they were taking a rest, Peter cast a furtive glance at his friend’s paper.

علاوه بر این- از این گذشته

furthermore/’fǝrðǝr’mɔr/ /

adv. in addition; also

syn: besides

* Furthermore, we shall send medical supplies immediately.

بیهودگی- بی فایدگی

futility/fyu’tɪlǝti/

n. useless; unsuccessful

syn: aimlessness; ineffectiveness

* unfortunately, all efforts to rescue the survivors were futility.

شکاف- وقفه- فاصله

gap/gæp /

n. empty space between

syn: blank; crack

* The wind blew through the gaps in the roof.

لباس- جامه

gard/gard/

v,n. clothes

syn: garments; costume

* The actors were costumed in the original garb of sixteenth century England.

حفاظت کردن از- دفاع کردن از

garrison/’gærǝsǝn/

v. guard a place

syn: armed force; troops

which political party do you garrison?

پرحرف- وراج

garrulous/g’ærǝlǝs/

adj. talking too much

syn: talkative; chatty

* paul is so garrulous that once he starts taking; no one can get a word in.

بریدن- زخم کردن- زخم عمیق

gash/gæ∫/

v. a long deep cut

syn: cut; wound

* The gash above his eye required fifteen stitches.

دست و پاچلفتی- بی ادب

gauche/gou∫/

adj. socially awkward

syn: impolite; clumsy

* His guache manner embarred his family.

آماده بودن- هماهنگ کردن

gear/gɪr/

v. to get ready or to make sb/ sth ready

syn: affair; gard

* I was all geared up for the party but it was cancelled at the last minute.

جواهر گوهر

gem/dʒεm/

n. jewel; very valuable thing or person

syn: stone; pearl

* I think that the gems in this ring are rubies, but they may be sapphires.

خوش مشرب- خوش اخلاق

genial/’dʒinyǝl/

adj. cheerful & kind

syn: easy-going; cordial

* We received such a genial welcome that we felt at home immediately.

اصل- اصیل- حقیقی

genuine/’dʒεnyuɪm/

adj. real; true

syn: actual; candid

* what I thought was a copy was a genuine Rembrandt.

روییدن- جوانه زدن

germinate/’dʒǝrmǝ’beɪt/

v. cause a seed to start growing

syn: generate; develop

* These seeds will germinate more quickly if you put them in a warmer place.

لُب مطلب- اصل موضوع

gist/dʒɪst/

n. main points of sth

syn: coe; point

* I understand the gist of the document, but my lawyer will have to explain the details.

دلربا- جذاب

glamorous/’glæmǝrǝs /

adj. attractive or full of sexual attraction

syn: alluring; elegant

* The finalists in the Miss Universe pageant are all very glamorous women.

چرب زبان- ساده انگار

glib/glɪb/

adj. speaking too easily

syn: easy; smooth

* The salesman was such a glib talker that he sold her several items that she did not need.

درخشیدن- برق زدن- موج زدن

glitter/’glɪtǝr/

v. flash brightly

syn: flare; gleam

* Her eyes glittered with tears as she struggled to control her emotions.

واژه نامه

glossary/’glasǝri/

n. list of explanations of words

syn: dictionary; word list

* If you do not understand some of the technical terms. Refer to the glossary.

هدف- آرمان- آرزو

goal/goul/

n. One’s aim or putpose

syn: aim; smbition

* His goal is to receive his Ph. D in electrical engineering.

پرخور- شکم پرست

gourmand/gur’mænd/

n. guzzler

syn: glutton; pig

* She’s always a gourmand, she never stops eating.

مهربان- بزرگوار- از سرلطف

gracious/’greɪ∫ǝs/

adj. pleasant, kind or polite

syn: elegant; kindly

* It was gracious of you to offer, but I don’t need any help.

حریص- آزمند

greedy/gridɪ/

adj. a strong desire for everything

syn: avaricious; covetous

* George is a very greedy man; the more money the acquires, the more he wants.

غم انگیز- ناگوار

grievous/’grivous/

adj. very harmful

syn: grief; sorrow

* His decision to leave home was a grievous event to his parents.

بدخلق- بداخلاق- عصبانی

grouchy/graut∫ɪ/

adj. bad temper

syn: irritable

* Anne thought that her brother was angry because he had been grouchy all day.

دلخوری- ناخشنود بودن از- دلخور بودن از

grudge/grʌdʒ/

v. to be unwilling to give sth to sb

syn: begrudge; dislike

* Despite the unfairness with which he was treated, he did not hold a grudge against his former employer.

غر زدن- گله کردن- شکایت کردن

grumble/’grʌmbǝl/

v. to complain or protest in a bad- tempered way

syn: bleat; complain

* Every one grumbles about paying more taces.

تندباد- به شدت وزیدن

gust/gʌst/

n,v. a sudden rush of wind

syn: storm; hurricane

* His hat was blown off by a sudden gust of wind

بوم- زیستگاه

habitat/’hæbǝ’tæt/

n. the natural home of a plant or an animal

syn: abode; home

* Stephen went abroad and made his habitat in Canada.

متوقف کردن- مردد بودن

halt/hɔlt/

v. to stop for a short time

syn: cease; break off

* We forced to halt the works because the machine broke down.

آبادی- دهکده

hamlet/’hæmlɪt/

n. a very small village

syn: farm; village

* There are sic families living in this hamlet.

دستبند- دستبند زدن

handcuffs/’hændkʌfs/

n,v. pair of metal rings for fastening a felon’s wrists

syn: bracelets; cuffs

* After police arrested Jim, they handcuffed him.

بی نظم- اتفاقی- تصادفی

haphazard/’hæp’hæzǝrd/

adj. unplanned; disorderly

syn: careless; casual

* It is obvious that this paper has been written in a very haphazard way.

سختگیر- بی رحمانه

harsh/har∫/

adj. severe or cruel

syn: austere; bleak

* The punishment seemed very harsh for such a harmless joke.

عجول- عجولانه

hasty/’heɪsti/

adj. acting or deciding sth too quickly

syn: drisk; heedless

* After he had considered the problem more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision.

مه آلود- غبارآلود- نامشخص

hazy/’heɪzɪ/

adj. not clear; misty

syn: cloudy; foggy

* Because of the hazy weather, there were only a few sunbathers at the beach.

پرخطر- مخاطره آمیز

hazardous/’hæzǝrdǝs/

adj. dangerous; risky

syn: dangerous; difficult

* The strong currents in the sea here are extremely hazardous for swimmers.

پرتکاپو- پرتلاش- پرجنب و جوش

hectic/’hεktɪk/

adj. very. Busy & full of a lot of things that you have to do quickly

syn: busy; frenetic

* My schedule is so hectic that I have only half an hour for lunch.

گوش دادن- توجه کردن- اعتنا کردن

heed/hid/

v. pay attention to advice

syn: mindful; attentive

* If he had heeded his broker’s advice, he would not need to borrow money now.

از حالا به بعد

henceforth/’hεnsfɔrθ/

adv. from now on; in future

syn: hereafter

* Henceforth at this university we shall observe the first week in February as international week.

خبر دادن از- اعلام کردن

herald/’hεrǝld/

v,n. to be a sign that sb/ sth is coming

syn: advertise; broadcast

* The shop is heralding for a part- time sales assistant.

خنده دار- بامزه

hilarious/hɪ’lεriǝs/

adj. very funny

syn: jolly; comical

* We laughed all through the movie; it was hilarious.

لولا بستگی داشتن به

hinge/hɪndʒ/

v,n. to depend on sth

syn: hang; be contingent

* The door squeaks because the hinges need oil.

اشاره کردن با اشاره حالی کردن- راهنمایی

hint/hɪnt/

v,n. to suggest sth in an indirect way

syn: advice; clue

* If you give me a hint, I am sure that I can guess the answer.

[صدا] خشن- [صدا] دو رگه

hoarse/hɔrs/

adj. sounding rough & quiet

syn: harsh; croaky

* The cheerleaders were hoarse from yelling at the basketball game.

دست انداختن- سربه سرگذاشتن- گول زدن

hoax/houks/

v. a trick that is played on sb

syn: delude; swindle

* News of an unidentified flying object was a hoax.

همه سوزی- قتل عام با حریق- انهدام

holocaust/’halǝ’kɔst/

n. widespread destructions, usually by fire.

syn: carnage; slaughter

* Teams of volunteers are still battling fires from ueaterday’s holocaust; meanwhile the death toll has risen to sixty.

ادای احترام- بزرگداشت- تقدیر

homage/’hamɪdʒ/

n. signs of great respect

syn: adulation; fidelity

*.The nation paid homage to their dead leader by lowering the flag to half-mast

وحشتناک- فجیع- افتضای

horrendous/hǝ’rεndǝs/

adj. really terrible

syn: horrible; awful

* We had a horrendous holiday. It rained everyday.

همهمه- جار و جنجال- سر و صدا

hubbub/’hʌbʌv/

n. mixture of loud noises

syn: chaos; confusion

* It is opening comment caused such a hubbub that he had to wait until the noise subsided to continue his lexture.

فروتن- متواضع

humble/’hʌmbǝl/

adj,v. low in rank; unimportant

syn: submissive; unimportant

* He became very rich & famous but he always remained a very humble man.

فرضیه

hypothesis/haɪ’paθǝsɪs/

n. idea that may explain facts

syn: imaginary; supposed

* Based upon the hypothesis that the world was round, explorers sailed west in order to reach the East.

ایده آلیست- آرمان گرا

idealist/aɪ’diǝlɪst/

n. a preson who has high ideals

syn: dreamer; romantic

* She is so strange person, she is idealist.

یکسان- همانند

identical/aɪ’dεntɪkǝl/

adj. the same

syn: likeness; unity

* Jean & Jane are identical twins.

ناآگاه- بی خبر- غافل

ignorant/’ɪgnǝrǝnt/

adj. not knowing about sth.

syn: stupid; unread

* Because Barbara had been ill, she was ignorant of the change in the dete for the final examination.

نادیده گرفتن- توجه نکردن

ignore/ɪg’nɔr/

v. to pay no attention to sb/sth

syn: neglect; omit

* She turned her back & ignored him as he went by.

غیر قانونی- غیر مجاز

illicit/ɪ’lɪsɪt/

adj. not allowed by law

syn: illegal; unlawful

* It is illicit to own a gun without a special licence.

بی سواد- حاکی از بی سوادی

illiterate/ɪ’lɪtǝrɪt/

adj,n. not able to read or write

syn: uneducated

* you must be illiterate if you’ve never heard of Sartre!

تصور غلط- خیال باطل – توهم

illusion/ɪ’luʒǝn/

n. a false idea, belief

syn: fallacy; hallucination

* That line looks longer, but in fact they’re the same length. It’s an optical illusion.

مهاجرت کردن- کوچیدن

immigrate/’ɪmǝ’greɪt/

v. come to live in a country

syn: settler; newcomer

* Many people have immigrated in this part of country.

نزدیک- قریب الوقوع- در راه

imminent/’ɪmǝnǝnt/

adj. almost certain

syn: near; approaching

* unless it stops raining by tomorrow, a flood appears imminent.

بی حرکت- ثابت

immobile/ɪ’moubǝl/

adj. not moving or not able to move

syn: fix; cripple

* The hunter stood immobile until the lion had passed.

بی حیا- گستاخ

immodest/ɪ’moudεst/

adj. not fine; rough in manner

syn: immoral; coarse

* His immodest remarks about women offended her.

بی طرف- منصف- منصفانه

impartial/ɪm’par∫ǝl/

adj. fair or neutral

syn: equitable; unbiased

* Mr. Williams is a good referee, he is always as impartial as possible.

غیر قابل عبور- غیر قابل گذر

impassable/ɪmpæsǝbǝl/

adj. impossible to travel on because it’s blocked

syn: blocked; impenetrable

* Flooding and fallen trees had made many roads impassable.

بن بست

impasse/’ɪmpæs/

n. point where further movement is blocked

syn: blind alley; dead end

* You should never overtake on an impasse corner.

مانع مشکل

impediment/ɪm’pεdǝmǝnt /

n. something that makes action difficult or impossible

syn: barrier; block

* The high rate of tax will be a major impediment to new businesses.

استمراری [دستور زبان] ناتمام- ناقص

imperfect/ɪm’pɜrfɪkt/

adj,n. not complete

syn: broken; damaged

* In “while I was having a bath”, the verb is in the imperfect tense.

مغرور- متکبر

imperious/ɪm’pɪriǝs/

adj.expecting obedience from others

syn: arrogant; autocratic

* They are very imperious of their new house.

بی صبر- شتاب زده

impetuous/ɪm’pεt∫uǝs/

adj. acting quickly but without thought

syn: hastyl rash

* Her impetuous behavior often got her into trouble.

نیرو- انگیزه

impetus/’ɪmpǝtǝs/

n. force of something moving

syn: energy; motivation

* I need fresh impetus to start working on this essay again.

تأثیر گذاشتن- لطمه زدن

impinge/ɪm’pɪndʒ/

v. affect sth

syn: encroach; influence

* I am not going to let my job impinge on my home life.

اعمال کردن- تحقق بخشیدن

implement/’ɪmplǝ’mεnt/

n,v. tool or carry out

syn: instrument; device

* Some teachers are finding it difficult to implement the government’s educational reforms.

ضمنی- مطلق

implicit/ɪm’plɪsɪt/

adj. unquestioning

syn: tacit; complete

* We had an implicit agreement that we would support each other.

به طور ضمنی بیان کردن- دلالت داشتن بر- تلویحاً گفتن

imply/ɪm’plaɪ/

v. express indirectly

syn: denote; hint

* Although he did not say so directly, he implied that he would be able to help us.

بی ادب

impolite/’ɪmpǝ’laɪt/

adj. bad- mannered

syn: insolent; rude

* I think it was impolite of him to ask you to heave.

فقر زده- بی مایه

impoverished/ɪm’pavǝrɪ∫t/

adj. make poor

syn: weake; diminish

* That impoverished news did nothing and diminish her enthusiasm for the plan.

فی البداهه- بدن برنامه ریزی (قبلی)

impromptu/ɪm’pramptu/

adj, adv. without preparation

syn: unrehearsed; offhand

* Since he did not have time to prepare a talk, his comments were completely impromptu.

نابجا- نامناسب

improper/ɪm’prapǝr/

adj. not suitable

syn: dishonest; incorrect

* He lost his job for making improper suggestions to several of the girls.

بی شرم- احمق

imprudent/ɪm’prudεnt/

adj. foolish

syn: indiscreet; heedless

* He was imprudent enough to divorce her.

ناتوانی

inability/’ɪnǝ’bɪlǝti/

n. lack of ability, power or skill

syn: incapability; dosability

* He has a complete inability to listen to other people’s opinions

ناکافی- فاقد صلاحیت

inadequate/ɪn’ædǝkwɪt/

adj. not sufficient

syn: unequal;unfitted

* There was so much to learn in the new job that for a while I felt totally inadequate.

مشوق- محرک

incentive/ɪn’sεntɪv/

n. something that encourages you

syn: encouragement; stimulant

* The company is offering cash incentives to staff to move to another area.

بی وقفه- پیوسته

incessant/ɪn’sεsǝnt/

adj. never stopping

syn: endless; persistent

* After a week of incessant rain, the river overflowed its banks.

اتفاقی- فرعی

incidental/’ɪnsǝ’dεntl/

adj. happeing as part of sth more important

syn: random; accidental

* Besides tuition & books, you will need about one hundred dollars for incidental expenses.

قاطع- صریح- بی پرده

incisive/ɪn’saɪsɪv/

adj. going directly to the point

syn: acid; acute

* After such insicive criticism from the press, it is doubtful that the city council will approve the project.

نامفهوم- بدون پیوستگی- نامربوط

incoherent/’ɪnkou’hɪrǝnt/

adj. not clear or easy to understant

syn: confused; disconnected

* We shout “omit chapter 1 & 4” because they are incoherent for this exam.

بدون صلاحیت- نالایق

incompeten/ɪn’kampǝtǝnt/

adj. lacking the necessary skill to do sth well

syn: incapable; useless

* She is incompetent for working hard.

ناهماهنگ- خارج از تناسب- ناجور

incongruous/ɪn’kaŋgruǝs/

adj. strange; not in harmony

syn: confliting; inappropriate

* He looked very incongruous in this T-shirt & jeans.

باور نکردنی- شگفت

incredible/ɪn’krεdǝbǝl/

adj. amazing or fantastic

syn: absurd; astounding

* These results are incredible; I can’t belive that they are accurate.

تحمل کردن- متحمل شدن

incur/ɪn’kǝr/

v. to cause of suffer sth

syn: suffer; provoke

* Mary often incurs from severe headaches.

خبری- علامت

indicative/ɪn’dɪkǝtɪv/

adj. being or giving a sign of sth

syn: suggestive

* Is the unusual weather indicative of fundamental climatic changes?

اعلام جرم- کیفر خواست

indictment/ɪn’daɪtmǝnt/

n. a written paper that officially accuses sb of a crome.

syn: accusation; allegation

* An indictment will be handed down by the grand jury when it convenes on Monday.

ترغیب کردن- واداشتن

induce/ɪn’dus/

v. to cause or produce

syn: encourage; generate

* Television commercials induce people to buy new products.

بی حرکت- ساکن- [گاز] بی اثر

inert/ɪ’nǝrt/

adj. not able to move or act

syn: dead; dormant

* This experiment can be repeated with any inert object, for example, a rock or a piece of wood.

اجتناب ناپذیر- حتمی

inevitanle/ɪ’nεvǝtǝbǝl /

adj. that can’t be avoided or prevented from happening

syn: automatic; certain

* It was inevitable that she would find out the truth one day.

تغییر ناپذیر- بی وقفه- تغییر ناپذیر

inexorable/ɪn’εksǝrǝbǝl /

adj. impossible to change or prevent

syn: cruel; inflexible

* Their arguments were inexorable, I had to agree.

بری از اشتباه- قابل اطمینان

infallible/ɪn’fælǝbǝl/

adj. never making mistakes

syn: accurate; certain

* Even the most Careful typist is not infallible.

بی آبرویی- بدنامی

infamy/ɪnfǝmi/

n. wickedness

syn: disgrace; disrepute

* There is no infamy in not having much money.

واگیردار- عفونی

infectious/ɪn’fεk∫ǝs/

adj. epidemic

syn: polluting; virulent

* Flu is very infectious.

استنباط کردن- دریافتن

infer/ɪn’fǝr/

v. to reach a conclusion from the information you have

syn: assume; conclude

* I inferred from our conversation that he was unhappy with his job.

[قانون] شکستن- نقض کردن

infringe/ɪn’frɪndʒ/

v. to break a rule, law. agreement

syn: disobey; intrude

* He infringed the orders then he was punished.

عصبانی کردن- از کوزه به در کردن

infurings/ɪn’fyuri’eɪt/

v. to make sb very angry

syn: annoy; provoke

* Close the door if the noise is infuriating you.

خلاق- ابتکاری

ingenious/ɪm’dʒinyǝs/

adj. clever at finding answers to problems

syn: creative; original

* This ingenious plan makes lots of money

جزء سازنده- عنصر

ingredinent/ɪn’gridiǝnt/

n. one of the items of food you need to make sth to eat

syn: component; element

* She had planned to bake a pie, but she did not have all of the necessary ingredients.

ساکن شدن در- سکونت گزیدن در

inhabit/ɪn’hæbɪt/

v. to live in a place

syn: dwell; occupy

* More than four billion people inhabit the earth.

شروع کردن- به اجرا درآوردن

initiate/ɪ’nɪ∫i’eɪt/

v. to start sth

syn: begin; commence

* In his inauguration speech, the new dean promised of the college.

نوآوری- ابداع- تغییر- پیشرفت

innovation/’mǝ’veɪ∫ǝn/

n. something new that has been introduced

syn: change; alteration

* Some of the innovations on display at the World Science Fair will not be practical until the twenty-first century.

واکسینه کردن- مایه کوبی کردن

inoculate/ɪ’nakyǝ’laɪt/

v. to inject sb with a mild form of a disease

syn: immunization; vaccination

* The children have been inoculated against tetanus.

کنجکاو- فضول

inquisitive/ɪn’kwɪzǝtɪv/

adj. veryh interested in finding out about what other people are doing.

syn: curious; nosy

* Stevie is a very inquisitive child, he never tires of asking questions.

واردکردن- داخل کردن

insert/ɪn’sǝrt/

v. to put sth into sth or between two things

syn: enter; infix

* Insert your money and then dial the number.

مکار- حیله گر

insidious/ɪn’sɪdiǝs/

v. go gather; to a ssemble

adj. deceitful person

syn: tricky; deceptive

* He had obtained the secret papers by an insidious way.

بازدید کردن- معاینه کردن

Inspect/ɪn’spʒkt/

v. to look at sth closely or in great detail

syn: check; examine

* In this state, every car must be inspected annually by the highway patrol.

شورشی

insurgent/ɪn’sǝrdʒǝnt/

adj, n. partisan

syn: rebellious; disobedient

* Mary was punished for insurgent orders.

یکپارچه کردن-هماهنگ کردن

Integrate/ ‘ɪntә’greɪt/

v. to join in & become part of a group

syn:blend ; combine

* It has been very difficult to integrate all of the local agencies into the national organization

قصد داشتن- در نظر داشتن

Intend/ɪn’tnd/

v. to plan or mean to do sth

syn: aim; propos

* I intended to telephone but I completely forgot.

روی یکدیگر اثر گذاشتن- ارتباط برقرار کردن

Interact/’ɪntǝr’ækt/

v. to communicate or mix in a way that has an influence or effect on sb else.

syn: effect; influence

* He is studying the way children interact each other at different ages.

فاصله – حین

Interim/’ntǝrɪm/

n,adj. in the time between two things happening

syn: temporary; acting

* There will now be a 20 minute interim.

قطع کردن- متوقف کردن- مانع کار (کسی) شدن

Interrupt/’ɪntǝ’rʌpt/

v. to make sb stop speaking or doing sth

syn: break; disturb

* Im sorry to interrupt that there’s a phone call for you.

فاصله- وقفه

Interval/’ntǝrvǝl/

n. a period of time between two events.

syn: delay; interlude

* The interval between the two playing periods of a football gams is called the halftime.

نزدیک- محرمانه- دوستانه

Intimate/’ɪntǝmɪt/

adj,n. having a very close relationship

syn: friendly; personal

* They told each other their most intimate thoughts and secrets.

تهدید- ترساندن

Intimidate /ɪn’tɪmǝ’deɪt/

v. to frighten sb

syn: alarm; dismay

* The reble troops intimidated that area.

پیچیده- تو درتو

Intricate/’ɪntrɪkɪt/

Adj. having many small parts put together in a complicated way

syn: complex; difficult

* An intricate system of interstate, state & country highways connects all of the major towns & cities in the United States

زیر آب بردن- غرق کردن

Inundate/’ɪnǝn’dǝɪt/

v. cover with water

syn: deluge; overflow

* We were inundated with applications for the job.

شکست ناپذیر- سر سخت

Invincible/ɪn’vinsǝbǝl/

adj. too strong or powerful to be defeated or beaten

syn: unyielding; indomitable

* Frodo put on the magic ring and became invincible.

نترس -جسور

Intrepid/ɪn’trεpɪd/

adj. brave and without any fear

syn: bold; brave

* Their leader remained intrepid even in the face of great danger.

مزاحم شدن

Intrude/ ɪn’trud/

v. to enter a place or situation without permission

syn: interfere; meddle

* Please forgive me; I did not mean to intrude.

غضب آلود- غضبناک

Irate/’aɪ’reɪt/

adi. very angry

syn: annoyed; irritated

* I shall be extremely irate if he turns up late again.

عصبانی کردن- ناراحت کردن- آزردن

Irritate/’ɪrǝ’teɪt/

v. to make sb angry

syn: aggravate; bother

* When he has a headache, even the slightest noise irritates him.

زبان نامفهوم- زبان یأجوج و مأجوج

Jargon/’dʒarhgǝn/

n. special or technical words that are used by a particular group of people

syn: nonsence; parlance

* I don’t understand what you say, most of your words are jargon.

دور انداختن- کنار گذاشتن

jettison/’dʒεtǝsǝn/

v. cast off

syn: reject; dispense with

* The plan was jettisoned as being impractical.

تکان دادن- تکان- پرش

jerk/dʒǝrk/

v,n. a sudden pull, push or other movement

syn: bounce; flirt

* The elevator stopped with a jerk

پیوستن

join/dʒɔɪn/

v. to meet or unite

syn: add; associate

* James is going to the army when he leaves he leaves school.

تکان دادن ضربه

jolt/dʒoult/

v. n. to shake sth or make it move it suddenly

syn: push; disconcert

* The lorry jolted along the bumpty track.

معقول- عاقلانه

judicious/dʒu’dɪ∫ǝs/

adj. sensible

syn: thoughtful; well advised

* I think it would be judicious to leave early, in case there’s a lot of traffic.

پرشور- مشتاق- علاقه مند

keen/kin/

adj. very interested in or having a strong desire for sb/sth

syn: eager; deep

* Because of her keen interest in ancient history, she plans to major in archaeology in college.

برچسب زدن- برچسب

label/’leɪbǝl/

v,n. to put a piece of paper on sth

syn: brand; mark

* All items of clothing should be clearly labeled with your name.

نیاز داشتن- کمبود

lack/læk/

v,n. to have too little or none of sth

syn: shortage; dearth

* Money is still lacking for the new hospital.

کوتاه-کم گو

laconic/lǝ’kanɪk/

adj. using few words

syn: concise; succinct

* Most of the people like her so much because she speaks laconic.

پُر- مملو- انباشته

laden/’leɪdn/

adj. having or carrying a lot of sth

syn: abundant; ample

* The travelers were laden down with luggage.

سوگواری کردن

lament/lǝ’mεnt/

v. to feel or express great sadness

syn: sorrow; complain

* Across the nation & around the world, people lamented the death of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

نشانه- راهنما- مرزنما

landmark/’lændma:k/

n. an important stage or change in the development of sth

syn: boundary; feature

* Big Ben is one of the landmakrs on London’s skyline.

عرض جغرافیایی-نواحی- آزادی

latitude/’lætǝ’tud/

n. the distance of a place north or south of the equator

syn: liberty; extent

* From the roof we could see the full latitude of the park.

ستایش کردن- ستودن

laud/lɔd/

v. worship

syn: acclaim; admire

* The national anthem, “The stat spangled Banner,” lauds the American flag.

اجاره کردن

lease/lis/

v. an official written agreement in which land, etc is let to sb else

syn: rent; hire

* Do you own or lease your house?

قانون گذراندن- قانون وضع کردن

legislate/’lεdʒǝ’sleɪt/

v. to make a law or laws

syn: codify; authorise

* It is very difficult to legislate against racial discrimination.

فراغت- مرفه- تفریحی

leisure/’liʒǝr/

n, adj. the time when you don’t have to work

syn: spare time; vacation

* Bill likes to dish in his leisure time.

ملایم- آسان گیر

lenient/’liniǝnt/

adj. not strict or severe

syn: kind; gentle

* He was a lenient, patient man who loved playing with his grandchildren.

درپوش در

lid/lɪd/

n. the top part of a box, pot, etc

syn: dish cover; cap

* Put a lid on the skillet so that grease won’t spatter.

بلندکردن- بالا بردن

lift/lɪft/

v. to move sb/sth to a higher level or position

syn: pick up; raise

* This box is too heavy for me to lift.

سبک- روشنایی

light/laɪt/

n, v. the brightness that allows you to see things

syn: brilliance; flash

* You should not need more than a light coat because the wether is quite warm.

شاخه- دست- پا

limb/lɪm/

n. a leg or an arm of a person.

syn: arm; bough

* Several limbs fell form the old, dead tree during the storm last night.

لنگ- لنگیدن- به زحمت رفتن

limp/lɪmp/

n, v. walk uneventlu

syn: falter; hitch

* Although he said that he had not hurt his leg, he was limping

شفاف- صاف

limpid/’lɪmpɪd/

adj. comprehensible

syn: bright; clear

* There was only one cloud in an otherwise limpid sky.

مهلک- کشنده

lethal/’liθǝl/

adj. able to cause death or great damage

syn: deadly; dangerous

* It was lethal to stand near to the cliff edge.

آت و آشغال- آشغال ریختن

litter/’lɪtǝr/

n, v. pieces of paper, packets, ets that are left in a public place

syn: debris; rubbish

* After the rock concert, the clean up crew found the compus littered with candy wrappers, bottles & cans.

دادخواهی- پرونده

litigation/’lɪtǝ’geɪ∫ǝn/

n. case

syn: lawsuit; contention

* The litigation will come to court in a few months.

بی عار- تن پروز

loafer/loufǝr/

n. a person that is very lazy

syn: voluptuous; self-indulgent

* That loafer will never get the job done.

متنفر بودن- بیزار بودن

loathe/louð/

v. to feel strong hatred or dislike for sb/sth

syn: abhore; detest

* She likes her job even though she loathes getting up early in the morning in order to get to work on time.

خرچنگ- گوشت خرچنگ

lobster/’labstǝr/

n. a large shell fish that has eight legs

syn: crab; craufish

* Mary’s favorite food is lobster but I don’t.

عمر طولانی

longevity/lan’dʒεvǝti/

n. long life

syn: long- lived

* If you exercise everyday, you have a longevity.

غنائم- اموال غارت شده

loot/lut/

n, v. goods that have been stolen

syn: prize; booty

* The thieves hid their loot in a deserted warehouse.

پرحرف- پرچانه

loquacious/loukweɪ∫ǝs/

adj. talking a great deal

syn: talkative; farrulous

* Most of my friends don’t like her, because she is a loquacious girl.

لالایی- زمزمه

lullaby/’lʌlǝ’baɪ/

n. gentle song that you sing to help a child to go to sleep

syn:lullay; lully

* The young mother hummed a lullaby to her sleeping baby.

سودآور

luceative/’lukrǝtɪv/

adj. producing a lot of money

syn: profitable; advantageous

* John found s lucrative job, but he went late at work & he was fired uesterday.

نورانی- درخشان

luminous/’lumǝnǝs/

adj. shining; lighted

syn: bright; lighted

* The dial on this alarm clock is luminous so that it can be seen in the dark.

درخشان- براق

lustrous/’lʌstǝriǝs/

adj. shining

syn: lit; illuminated

* This shampoo is guaranteed to make your hair more lustrous than any other brand.

مجلل- لوکس- پرهزینه

luxurious/lʌg’ʒuriǝs/

adj. very confortable, full of luxury

syn: costly; lavish

* She divorced after two years because she is luxurious girl & nobody can live with her.

هولناک- ترسناک

macabre/mǝ’kabrǝ/

adj. horrible and frightening because connected with death

syn: grim; dreadful

* I’ve got a macabre feeling when I’ve watched that movie.

دوشیزه- مجرد

maiden/’meɪdn/

n, adj. a girl or unmarried woman

syn: girl; damsel

* For this job, we need just maiden.

معلول کردن علیل کردن

maim/meɪm/

v. to hurt sb so badly that a part of the body can no longer be used

syn: cripple; hurt

* Five people were killed in the crash and twelve others were maimed.

بدگویی کردن از- تهمت زدن به

malign/mǝ’laɪn/

v,adj. destructive

syn: harmful; hostile

* If she continues to malign the integrity of our company, we will sue her for slander.

خانه مجلل- خانۀ اعیانی

mansion/’mæn∫n/

n. a very large house

syn: glorious house

* Thomas Jefferson’s mansion, Monticello, is located near Charlottesville, Virginia.

مادیان- ماده الاغ

mare/mεr/

n. a female horse or donkey

syn: female; feminine

* Only three years old horses are eligible to run in the Kentucky

حاشیه- لبه- کناره

margin/’mardʒɪn/

n. the empty space at the side of a page in a book, etc.

syn: edge; border

* Dr. Briggs always writes her corrections in the margins of her student’s papers.

ارتشبد- کلانتر- مرتب کردن- آراستن

marshal/’mar∫ǝl/

n, v. a person who helps to organize or control a large public event

syn: arrange; collect

* The U.S marshal will carry out the orders of this court.

بزرگ- عظیم- سنگین- برجسته- وسیع

massive/’mæsɪv/

adj. very big

syn: bulky; huge

* The city is surrounded by a massive wall with a fortified gate.

خسیس تنگ نظر- معنی دادن

mean/min/

adj, v. not willing to give or use sth; to express

syn: stingy; parsimonius

It’s no good asking him for any money. He’s much too mean.

دخالت کردن- فضولی کردن

meddle/’mεdl/

v. to handle sth that you shouldn’t do

syn: interfere; interpose

* Their landlady likes to meddle in her tenants’ affairs.

معمولی- متوسط

midicore/’midi’oukǝr/

adj. of not very high quality.

syn: average; medium

* She was of medicore height & weight.

آرام- سربه راه

meek/mik /

adj. quiet, and doing what other people say without asking questions

syn: docile; patient

* She seems very meek but she can get very angry.

تعمیر کردن- وصله کردن

mend/mεnd/

v,n. to repair sth

syn: fix; recover

* He asked his mother to mend the hole in the pocket of his jeans.

خطر- تهدید- تهدید کردن

menace/’mεnɪs/

n, v. a danger or threat

syn: frighten; impend

* Hurricanes periodically menace the Gulf coast.

ادغام- تلفیق

merger/’mǝrdʒǝr/

n. the act of joining two or more companies together

syn: combination; uniou

* There are rumors of a merger involving several major railroad companies.

بسیار دقیق- موشکاف

meticulous/mǝ’tɪkyǝlǝs/

adj. very careful

syn: exact; precise

* He arranged the computer cards with meticulous care, making sure that each one was in the correct order.

جنگ طلب- افراطی

millitant/’mɪlǝtǝnt/

adj,n. using or willing to use force or strong pressure to get what you want

syn: belligerent; fighting

* The workers were in a very militant mood.

قاطی شدن- مخلوط کردن

mingle/’mɪŋǝl/

v. to mix with another thing

syn: blend; combine

* It is not easy for him to mingle with people because he is very shy.

تغییر دادن اصلاح کردن- کاهش دادن

modify/’madǝ’faɪ/

v. to change sth slightly

syn: adapt; adjust

* It will be difficult to modify the agreement after it had been signed because all changes will be subject to congressional approval.

اذیت کردن- مزاحم شدن

molear/mǝ’lεst/

v. to seriously annoy sb

syn: harass; tease

* There was a sign on the gate which read: “Do not molest the dog.”

کودن- آدم احمق

moron/’mɔran/

n. a very foolish or stupid person

syn: brainless; daft

* In spite of his having graduated from a respected university, he often behaves like a moron.

لقمه ذره

morsel/’mɔrsǝl/

n. a very small piece

syn: bit; atom

* The dinner must have been good because there is not even a morsel of it left over.

مِن مِن کردن- غرغر کردن

mumble/’mʌmbǝl/

v,n. to speak quietlu without opening your mouth properly, so that people can’t really hear the words

syn: nag

* It is hard to understand him because he has s tendency to mumble.

بلعیدن- لُف لُف خوردن

muncg/mʌnt∫/

v. to eat steadily

syn: champ; chew

* The boys always munch popcorn while they watch the movie.

متقابل- دوجانبه

mutual/’myut∫uǝl/

adj. shared by two or more people

syn: common; interchanged

* Although Bob & his father do not agree on the issues, they have a mutual respect for each other’s opinions.

نهایت اُفت- حضیض

nadir/’nidɪr/

n. perigee

syn: falling; shortage

* The stock market reached its nadir on Tuesday & began to rise again in early trading on Wednesday.

دایه- ننه

nanny/’næni/

n. a woman whose job is looking after young children

syn: nurse

* Mary is a very busy doctor and she should get a nanny for child.

بد- زننده- پر دردسر

nasty/’næsti/

adj. ugly or unpleasant

syn: offensive; horrible

* Be tactful when you tell him, because he a very nasty temper.

نفی کردن- باطل کردن

negate/nɪ’geɪt/

v. cancel

syn: abrogate; deny

* She was negated permission to remain in the country.

بی توجه- مسامحه کار

negligent/’nεglɪdʒǝnt/

adj. not giving enough care or attention to sth

syn: lax; uncaring

* Because the mechanic was negligent about fixing the brakes on her car, she was involved in a serious accident.

بدنام- انگشت نما- معروف

notorius/nou’tɔriεs/

adj. well- known for sth bad

syn: infamous; blatant

* This road is notorious for the number of accidents on it.

کرخ- بی حس

numb/nʌm/

adj, v. not able to feel anything

syn: frozen; unfeeling

* By the time the mountain climbers had reached the snowy top, their hands & feet were numb with cold.

آبادی

oasis/ǝu’eɪsɪs/

n. a place in the desert where there is water & where plants grow

syn: haven; refuge

* Except for a few scattered oasis, the desert is quite barren.

اعتراض کردن- مخالفت ورزیدن

object/ǝb’dʒkt/

v. to not like or to be against sb/ sth

syn: argue; complain

* Many people object to the new tax.

فراموشی- ناهشیاری

oblivion/ǝ’blɪviǝn/

n. the state of having forgotten sth or of not being aware of sth

syn: nothingness; unawareness

* with time the author’s name faded into oblivion and his books were no longer read.

گنگ- تیره- تار

abscure/ǝb’skyur/

adj, v. not easy to see or understend

syn: unclear; murky

* The meaning of this poem is very obscure; I really do not understand it.

متملق- چاپلوس

absequious/ǝb’sikwiǝs/

n. too eager to obey or serve

syn: submissivel slavish

* His obsequious submission to his boss;s ideas disgusted his fellow workers.

مشاهده کردن

observe/ǝb’zǝrv/

v. to notice sb/sth or watch sb/stj carefully

syn: view; discover

* A man & a woman were observed leaving by the back door.

کهنه قدیمی- مهجور

absolete/’absǝ’lit/

adj. no longer used because it’s out of date

syn: antique; out of date

* New computer systems have made old methods of data processing obsolete.

لجوج- یک دنده- خودرأی

obstinate/’abstǝnɪt/

adj. not willing to change your mind if you have decided sth

syn: stubborn; inflexible

* Jan is such an obstinate person, I know that we will never be able to change her mind.

بستن- مسدود کردن

obstruct/ǝb’strʌkt/

v. to stop sth/ sb from moving or happening

syn: arrest; block

* please move your car. you obstruct the highway.

رخ دادن- اتفاق افتادن- یافت شدن

occur/ǝ’kǝr/

v. to happen

syn: appear; develop

* It never occurred to John that his wife might be unhappy.

مدار- کانون

orbit/’ɔrbɪt/

n,v. the path taken by sth; going round sth else in space

syn: circle; range

* We all stood in a orbit and held hands.

شوم- تهدید آمیز- پیام آور

ominous/’amǝnǝs/

adj. suggesting that sth bad is going to happen

syn: fateful; sinister

* Those dark clouds look ominous; it will probably rain before evening.

حذف کردن غفلت کردن از

omit/ou’mɪt/

v. to not include sth

syn: neglect; drop

* You mau omit questions nine and ten because they do not apply to students.

نطق- خطابه

oration/ɔ’ri∫ǝn/

n. public speaking

syn: lecturer; speech

* Almost everyone was bored by his lengthy oration; is seemed that he would never stop talking.

عذاب- آزمایش سخت

ordeal/ɔr’dil/

n. a very unpleasant experience

syn: troubles; anguish

* Even though no one was seriously injured, the plane crash was a terrible ordeal for the passengers.

تولید- بازده- خروجی

output/’autput/

n . the amount that a person or machine produces

syn: product; achievement

* In order to increase the output, a night shift will be hired at the dactory.

اهانت آمیز- زشت

outrageous/aut’reɪdʒǝs/

adj. making you very angry

syn: horrible; monstrous

* She was offended by his outrageous remark.

روی هم رفته- در مجموع- کلاً

overall/’ouvǝr’ɔl/

n,adj,adv. including everything

syn: comprehensive; general

* The overall charges for the parts & labor are itemized in your statement.

آشکار- علنی

overt/ou’vǝrt/

adj. not hidden;

syn: open

* His voice wan’t very overt on the telephone.

قدم- گام

pace/peɪs/

n,v. the distance that you move when you take one step

syn: walk; step

* Nick took two paces forwards and hen stopped.

پیمان- توافق نامه

pact/pækt/

n. a formal agreement between two people, groups

syn: agreement; contract

* Even if a peace pact is signed, neither nation will be in a position to honor it.

خوشمزه- لذیذ- مطبوع

palatable/’pælǝtǝbǝl/

adj. tasty

syn: enjoyable; satisfactory

* Some foods which are considered very palatable in one country are not eaten at all in another country.

نوش دارو- داروی عام

panacea/’pænǝ’siǝ/

n. something that will put right all troubles

syn: cure all

* A two- week vacation is wonderful for fatigue, but will not cure baldness or improve vision, It is not panacea.

بسیار مهم- فوق العاده- ارشد

paramount/’pærǝ’maunt/

adj. most important

syn: chief; primary

* One of the paramount reasons for his decision was money.

ترحم انگیز- رقت بار- بدبخت

parthetic/pǝ’θεtɪk/

adj. causing you to feel pity or sadness

syn: miserable; pitiable

* I was offered a pathetic salary so I didn’t take the job.

فقیر- مسکین

pauper/’pɔpǝr/

n. a very poor person

syn: indigent; needy

* When the banks failed during the Greet Depression, many forerlu successful businessmen sommitted suicide rather than live as paupers.

زیرچشمی نگاه کردن- دید زدن- نگاه

peek/pik/

v,n. look at sth quickley

syn: glance; look

* The little boy promised not to peek at his Christmas presents while his parents were gone.

با دقت نگاه کردن- زل زدن به سر زدن

peer/pɪr/

v. look closely or carefully at sth

syn: scan; inspect

* I peered outside but it was too dark to see much.

سوراخ کردن- شکافتن

penetrate/’pεnǝ’treɪt/

v. to make or force a way into or through sth

syn: get through; permeate

* The bullet penetrated the victim’s chest & lodged itself just to the right of his heart.

فکور- غرقه در فکر- غمگین

pensive/’pεnsɪv/

adj. thoughtful person

syn: reflective; wistful

* You seem to be in a very pensive mood; I hope that nothing is wrong.

[کاغذ] سوراخ کردن

perforate/’pǝrfǝ’reɪt/

v. to make a hole or holes in sth

syn: hole; puncture

* please teat along the perforated line.

نفوذ کردن- پخش شدن- رایج شدن

permeae/’pǝrmi’rɪt/

v. pass through

syn: fill; pervade

* The news permeated him with excitement.

پُر مخاطره- خطرناک

perilous/’pεrǝlǝs/

adj. dangerous

syn: risky; unsafe

* Although the acrobat’s performance seemed very perilous, it was not as dangerous as it looked.

برای همیشه- به طور دائم

permanently/’pǝrmǝnǝnrlɪ/

adv. lasting for a long time or forever

syn: constantly; perpetually

* I have had several summer jobs but I have never been permanently employed.

ابدی- جاودانی- همیشگی

perpetual/pǝpt∫uǝl/

adj. not stopping or changing

syn: endless; eternal

* Bathing in the Fountain of Youth is supposed to assure perpetual beauty.

متقاعد کردن- قانع کردن- راضی کردن

persuade/pǝr’sweɪd/

v. to cause sb to do sth by giving him/ her good reasons

syn: advice; convince

* Although he offered her a higher salary, he could not persuade her to accept a position with his firm.

مربوط مناسب

pertinent/’pǝrtɪnǝnt/

adj. directly connected with sth

syn: applicable; suitable

* The film isn’t pertinent for children

درخواست کردن- تقاضا کردن- خواست

petition/pǝ’tɪ∫ǝn/

v. a written document, signed by many people, that asks a government

syn: plea; request

* We need one hundred more signatures before we take the petition to the governor.

آرام- خونسرد- خویشتندار

phlegmatic/flεg’mætɪk/

adj. not easily excited or upset; calm

syn: impassive; placid

* Mr. Jones is so phlegmatic that he never gets excited about anything.

دزدی کردن- کش رفتن

pilfer/’pɪlfǝr/

v. to take sth that belongs to another person

syn: steal; thieve

* Tom was fired because his boss caught him pilfering supplies from the storeroom.

ستون- پایه

pillar/’pɪlǝr/

n. a column of stone, wood or metal that is used for supporting part of a building

syn: pier; support

* The Lincoln Memorial is supported by thirty –six pillars, one for each of the states of the union at the time of Lincoln’s presidency.

نیشگون گرفتن- گاز گرفتن

pinch/pɪnt∫/

v. to squeeze a piece of sb’s skin tightly between your thumb & first finger

syn: compress; nip

* As she wsd getting out of the car she sccidentally pinched her finger in the door.

تأسف خوردن- متأسف بودن برای

pity/’pɪti/

v. a feeling of sadness that you have for sb/ sth who is suffering or in trouble

syn: regret; shame

* She felt pity for the war orphans regardless of what their parent’s political associations had been.

آرام کردن- تسکین دادن

placate/’pleɪkeɪt/

v. to make sb feel less angry

syn: calm; satisfy

* The manager tried to placate the angry customer by offering him to exchange his purchase.

فلات- [اقتصاد] وضع ثابت

plateau/plæ’tou/

n. a large area

syn: mesa

* The new airport will be constructed on a large plateau overlooking the capital.

موجه قابل قبول

plausible/’plɔzǝbǝl/

adj. sounding as if it is true; reasonable

syn: probable; possible

* Even though it is a plausible explanation, I am not completely convinced.

درخواست- اظهاریه

plea/pli/

n. a strong request; an appeal

syn: claim; petition

* He entered a plea of “not guilty” to the charges filed against him.

تُپل- چاق

plump/plʌmp/

adj. fat

syn: beefy; fleshy

* These tomatoes are plump & juicy.

دزدیدن- قاچاقی شکار کردن

poach/pout∫/

v. to catch or shoot birds, animals on sb- else’s land without permission.

syn: steal; pilfer

* The terrorists were driving a poached car.

آلوده کردن- فاسد کردن

pollute/pǝ’lut/

v. to make air; rivers, eac dirty & dangerous

syn: taint; stain

* Many lakes & rivers have been polluted by industrial waste.

به فکر فرو رفتن- تعمق کردن- دربارۀ (چیزی) فکر کردن

ponder/’pandǝr/

v. to think about sth carefullu or for a long time

syn: consider; deliberate

* Each chess player will have five minutes to ponder his next move.

عقب انداختن- به تأخیر انداختن

postpone/poust’poun/

v. to arrange that sth will happen at a later time than the time expected

syn: adjourn; put off

* The baseball game will be postponed until next Saturday because

شوخی- مسخرگی

prank/præŋk/

n. antic

syn: joke; lark

* On April Fool’s Day people like to play pranks on their friends.

احتیاط- عمل احتیاطی

precaution/prɪ’kɔ∫ǝn/

n. something that you do in order to avoid danger or problems

syn: caution; protection

* The doctor would like you to be vaccinated as a precaution.

مقدم بودن بر- قبل از (کسی) قرار گرفتن

precede/prɪ’sid/

v. to come or go before sb/sth

syn: front; introduce

* The playing of the national anthem precedes all sports events.

دستور- حُکم قاعده

precept/’prisεpt/

n. mandate

syn: a rule; a command

* The following precept is worth remembering. “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.”

درست- با دقت- دقیقاً

precisely/prɪ’daɪslɪ/

adv. clearly or exactly

syn: absolutely; correctly

* Their plane arrived precisely on schedule.

پیش بینی کردن- پیش گویی کردن

predict/prɪ’dɪkt/

v. to say that sth will happen

syn: forecast; foretell

* Although the weatherman had predicted snow, it was a beautiful weekend.

مقدمه- سرآغاز- پیش درآمد

prelude/’prεlyud/

n. something that comes before sth else or that forms an introduction to sth

syn: beginning; foreword

* Organ music is often a prelude to church services.

حاکم بودن- غلبه کردن- پیروز شدن

prevail/prɪ’veɪl/

v. to exit or be common; to win or gain control

syn: abound; overcome

* Some of the traditional sustoms still prevail among members of the older generation.

رایج متداول [بیماری] شایع

prevalent/’prεvǝlǝnt/

adj. common in a particular place at a particular time

syn: customary; popular

Smog is more prevalent in urban centers.

قبلی- پیشین

prior/’praɪǝr/

adj. coming before or earlier

syn: foregoing; former

* Prior to the Revolutionary war, the United States was an English colony.

معاینه کردن- جستجو کردن

probe/proub/

v. to examine sth carefully with a special attention

syn: verify; elements.

* A probe of the surface of the sun has revealed a total of sixty- four chemical elements.

عمیق- ژرف- سنگین

profound/prǝ’faund/

adj. greatl that you feel very strongly

syn: deep; extreme

* After the nurse gave him a sedative, he fell into a profound sleep.

قدغن کردن- ممنوع کردن

prohibit/prou’hɪbɪt/

v. to say that sth is not allowed by law

syn: ban; forbid

* English law prohibits children under16 from buying cigarette

پرکار- فعال- دارای آثار متعدد

prolific/prǝ’lɪfɪk/

adj. producing a lot

syn: abundant; copious

* Erneat Hemingesy was a very prolific writer; during his brief career he published seven major novels, six volumes of short stories & poems and two travel sketches.

مستعد- آماده

prone/proun/

adj. likely to suffer from sth or to do sth

syn: bent; predisposed

* young people are especially prone to this disease.

منتشر کردن- پخش کردن

promulgate/’pramǝl’geɪt/

v. to make known

syn: declare

* As soon as the mayor promulagates the new law, Market place will be a one way street going south.

پایه- تکیه گاه

prop/prap/

n. a piece of furniture or another another object that is used in a play, film.

syn: support; stay

* He used a brick as a prop to keep the door open.

موفق شدن- رونق گرفتن- کار (کسی) گرفتن

prosper/’praspǝr/

v. to be successful, especially financially

syn: progress; advance

* Their business began to proper when they moved to their new location.

بیرون زدن- بیرون آمدن

protrude/prou’trud/

v. to stick out from a surface

syn: extend; point

* When he saw the bone protruding through her shin, he knew that she had a very serious fracture.

تحریک کردن عصبانی کردن

provoke/prǝ’vouk/

v. to make a person or an animal angry by annoying the,

syn: aggravate; insult

* His lecture provoked an interesting discussion.

نزدیکی مجاورت

proximity/prak’sɪmǝti/

n. the state of being near to sth.

syn: adjacency; closeness

* proximity to the new shopping center should increase the value of our propery.

پیشنهاد کردن- قصد داشتن

propose/prǝ’pouz/

v. to suggest sth as a possible plan or action.

syn: aim; recommend

* I propose a day in the country and lunch at a pub.

قهرمان داستان

protagonist/prou’tægǝnɪst/

Chief character

syn: hero; proponent

* Brutus is the protagonist in William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and Antony is the antagonist.

محتاط دوراندیش- معقول

prudent/’prudnt/

adj. having or showing careful thought.

syn: careful; wary

* In order to make a prudent decision, you must consider all of the possibilities carefully.

ستیزه جو- پرخاشگر

pugnacious/pʌg’neɪ∫ǝs/

adj. hot tempered

syn: hostile; aggressive

* They are very pugnacious to any change.

تصفیه کردن- پاک کردن

purify/’pyurǝ’faɪ/

v. to remove dirty or harmful substances from sth

syn: clean; erase

* It’s not necessary to boil the drinking water because it has already been purified chemically.

واجد شرایط شدن با- صلاحیت پیدا کردن- وصف کردن

qualify/’kwalǝ’faɪ/

v. to pass the examination that is necessary to do a particular job

syn: authorise; classify

* How many years must you work to qualify for a pension?

دغدغه خاطر- عذاب وجدان- دل نگرانی

qualm/kwam/

n. a feeling of doubt or worry about whether what you are doing is right

syn: worry; doubt

* I don’t have any qualms about asking them to lend us some money.

سرکوب کردن- فرونشاندن

quell/kwεl/

v. to put an end to sth;

syn: alleviate; defeat

* The National Guard was called in to quell the riot.